Lesson 1: Defining Communication


1. Communicative tasks are typically

2. According to Canale and Swain (1980), "communicative competence" includes grammatical competence as well as

3. "Strategic competence" refers to the ability to

4. Levelt (1989) is a model of oral language

Clear Answers


In your opinion, which of the four competencies as defined by Canale and Swain receive the most attention in foreign language education? Why?

Think about your own communicative competence in a second or third language. Are you equally strong in all four competencies?