Frame description

This frame concerns a Cognizer's certainty about the correctness of a belief or set of expectations, the Content or Topic. It only includes uses where a Cognizer is expressed. 

Examples:

1. Da waren wir sicher, dass sie zurückkommt.1. Then we were surethat she is coming back.
2. Die USA glaubendie Atomkraft sei nicht nötig in einem Land mit viel Öl.2. The USA believes nuclear power is not necessary in a land with much oil.
3. Die Zweifel an seiner Version der Geschichte waren in ihrem Gesicht zu lesen.3. The doubts about his version of the story could be read in her face.

Display columns:

Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms

Frame Elements

Frame Element descriptions (on hover):

The person whose is certain or uncertain.

The specific idea that the Cognizer is certain or uncertain about.

What the Cognizer has a certain or uncertain belief about; this is less specific than the Content.

The body part or action by a body part that conveys the mental state of the Cognizer to an observer. People often show doubt in their facial expressions, for example.

The Degree shows the Cognizer's level of confidence in their knowledge, i.e. how certain they are.

Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
Glaube, der noun belief

Details:

belief

"Der Glaube" refers like its English equivalent to the firm, inner conviction of a Cognizer that things or phenomena are real / true although they are not objectively proven. Most instances of this LU fall within the Awareness frame, although as with the related LU "glauben" ("to believe"), some instances may evoke the Certainty or Opinon frames, as explained below. Note that this noun does not have a plural form. 

"Der Glaube" in the Certainty frame includes uses where the Cognizer has a solid, unshakable belief that something is part of reality. The Certainty sense of "der Glaube" can overlap with the Awareness sense. The difference is that in the Certainty frame, there is a stronger emphasis on the implication that the Content ("the belief") is correct or accurate, rather than a part of the Cognizer's subjective world view (as in the Awareness frame). 

The belief is even weaker in the Opinion frame, where "der Glaube" indicates that the Cognizer holds the Topic or Content simply as an Opinion, not necessarily as part of their reality. Some ambiguity between these senses is possible. However, the preposition "an" ("in") is a clear sign that the Certainty or Awareness frames are at play. Saying that a person believes "in" something implies that they hold that concept as part of their (sometimes subjective) reality. Thus the prepositional phrase with "an" ("in") is used to express the Content (the concept that the Cognizer believes in).

Note that most instances of this LU and its related verb "glauben" ("to believe") fall within the Awareness frame. Note that this noun does not have a plural form. 


Further details:

Word formation:

"das Glaubensbekenntnis" ("creed," "profession of faith," "statement of belief"), "die Glaubensfreiheit" ("religious freedom"), "die Glaubensgemeinschaft" ("denomination," "community of faith"), "die Glaubensrichtung" ("denomination," "creed," "persuation"), "gläubig" ("religious," "believing"), "der Aberglaube" ("superstition"), "der Fortschrittsglaube" ("(naive) belief in progress"), among others

Synonyms:

"das Vertrauen," "die Überzeugung," "die Zuversicht," "das Bekenntnis," "die Konfession," among others

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„Glaube“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/Glaube>, abgerufen am 17.02.2022.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sein Glaube wurde immer stärker, dann kam der Wille, Ungläubige zu töten.
  2. Die Medien ließen uns im Glauben, dass in dem Flugzeug die wichtigsten Würdenträger der polnischen Regierung umgekommen seien.
  3. Der Glaube an die Politik und ihre Möglichkeiten hat stark abgenommen.
  1. His belief became stronger and stronger, then came the will to kill nonbelievers.
  2. The media left us in the belief that in the airplane the most important dignitaries of the Polish government had perished.
  3. The belief in politics and its possibilities has strongly declined.

Grammar:

Weak Nouns

All so-called "weak" nouns in German are masculine, and their "weakness" is their willingness to change their ending by adding "(e)n" whenever they appear in a case other than nominative. This basically means that these nouns all end with "en" when they appear in these other cases, which is important to know because that ending can make these nouns seem plural when they are not (e.g. "der Mensch," "human," "pl. die Menschen," but also sing.akk "den Menschen"). The table below shows several examples, but if you crave further details, you can visit Grimm Grammar.

EnglishNom.Akk.Dat.Gen.

student

der Student
ein Student

den Studenten
einen Studenten

dem Studenten
einem Studenten

des Studenten
eines Studenten

thought

der Gedanke
ein Gedanke

den Gedanken
einen Gedanken

dem Gedanken
einem Gedanken

des Gedanken
eines Gedanken

nephew

der Neffe
ein Neffe

den Neffen
einen Neffen

dem Neffen
einem Neffen

des Neffen
eines Neffen

(male) customerder Kunde
ein Kunde

den Kunden
einen Kunden

dem Kunden
einem Kunden

des Kunden
eines Kunden

boy

der Junge
ein Junge

den Jungen
einen Jungen

dem Jungen
einem Jungen 

des Jungen
eines Jungen 

human, man

der Mensch
ein Mensch

den Menschen
einen Menschen

dem Menschen
einem Menschen 

des Menschen
eines Menschen

belief

der Glaube
ein Glaube 

den Glauben
einen Glauben

dem Glauben
einem Glauben

des Glauben
eines Glauben

(male) Christian

der Christ
ein Christ

den Christen
einen Christen

dem Christen
einem Christen

des Christen
eines Christen

(male) psychologist 

der Psychologe
ein Psychologe

den Psychologen
einen Psychologen

dem Psychologen
einem Psychologen

des Psychologen
eines Psychologen

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER hat den Glauben, dass CONTENT.
  1. COGNIZER has the belief that CONTENT.

Details:

belief

"Der Glaube" refers like its English equivalent to the firm, inner conviction of a Cognizer that things or phenomena are real / true although they are not objectively proven. Most instances of this LU fall within the Awareness frame, although as with the related LU "glauben" ("to believe"), some instances may evoke the Certainty or Opinon frames, as explained below. Note that this noun does not have a plural form. 

"Der Glaube" in the Certainty frame includes uses where the Cognizer has a solid, unshakable belief that something is part of reality. The Certainty sense of "der Glaube" can overlap with the Awareness sense. The difference is that in the Certainty frame, there is a stronger emphasis on the implication that the Content ("the belief") is correct or accurate, rather than a part of the Cognizer's subjective world view (as in the Awareness frame). 

The belief is even weaker in the Opinion frame, where "der Glaube" indicates that the Cognizer holds the Topic or Content simply as an Opinion, not necessarily as part of their reality. Some ambiguity between these senses is possible. However, the preposition "an" ("in") is a clear sign that the Certainty or Awareness frames are at play. Saying that a person believes "in" something implies that they hold that concept as part of their (sometimes subjective) reality. Thus the prepositional phrase with "an" ("in") is used to express the Content (the concept that the Cognizer believes in).

Note that most instances of this LU and its related verb "glauben" ("to believe") fall within the Awareness frame. Note that this noun does not have a plural form. 


Further details:

Word formation:

"das Glaubensbekenntnis" ("creed," "profession of faith," "statement of belief"), "die Glaubensfreiheit" ("religious freedom"), "die Glaubensgemeinschaft" ("denomination," "community of faith"), "die Glaubensrichtung" ("denomination," "creed," "persuation"), "gläubig" ("religious," "believing"), "der Aberglaube" ("superstition"), "der Fortschrittsglaube" ("(naive) belief in progress"), among others

Synonyms:

"das Vertrauen," "die Überzeugung," "die Zuversicht," "das Bekenntnis," "die Konfession," among others

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„Glaube“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/Glaube>, abgerufen am 17.02.2022.

Alternate Forms:

der Glauben (rarely used), (pl.) die Glauben (rarely used)
glauben verb to believe

Details:

to believe

This term indicates that the Cognizer holds a particular belief to be true. In the Certainty frame, there is a strong emphasis on the implication that the Content (the belief) is factual and correct. Often, the Certainty frame includes uses where the Cognizer is either very general or is a group of people, as in example 1 where a whole country is construed as the Cognizer.

Just as in English, there is a shorthand way to indicate that the Cognizer believes that what someone claims is true: "Ich glaube ihm" ("I believe him"). Used in this way, "glauben" requires a dative object (the person who is believed), and the Content that the Cognizer believes is the truthfulness of the other person's claims.

The Awareness and Opinion frames also include senses of "glauben," but those are weaker than in this frame; in Certainty, there is the implication that the Content is true and correct, in Awareness, the Content is part of the Cognizer's subjective view of reality, and in Opinion, the Content is simply an opinion, not fact.


Further details:

Word formation:

"glaubhaft" ("plausible," "credible"), "glaubwürdig" ("credible," "believably," "reliable")

Synonyms:

"meinen," "überzeugt sein (von)"

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„glauben“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/glauben>, abgerufen am 17.02.2022.

 

This word is part of the vocabulary for the Goethe-Zertifikat A1.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die USA glauben, die Atomkraft sei nicht nötig in einem Land mit viel Öl.
  2. Mein Vater glaubt mir nie.
  3. Er glaubt ihr aufs Wort, dass sie viel Spaß hatte.
  4. Ich glaube wirklich, dass man mit ihm reden kann.
  1. The USA believes nuclear power is not necessary in a land with much oil.
  2. My father never believes me.
  3. He believes her at her word that she had a lot of fun.
  4. I really believe that one can talk to him.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER glaubt, CONTENT.
  2. COGNIZER glaubt, dass CONTENT.
  3. COGNIZER glaubt an CONTENT.accusative.
  1. COGNIZER believes CONTENT.
  2. COGNIZER believes that CONTENT.
  3. COGNIZER believes in CONTENT.

Details:

to believe

This term indicates that the Cognizer holds a particular belief to be true. In the Certainty frame, there is a strong emphasis on the implication that the Content (the belief) is factual and correct. Often, the Certainty frame includes uses where the Cognizer is either very general or is a group of people, as in example 1 where a whole country is construed as the Cognizer.

Just as in English, there is a shorthand way to indicate that the Cognizer believes that what someone claims is true: "Ich glaube ihm" ("I believe him"). Used in this way, "glauben" requires a dative object (the person who is believed), and the Content that the Cognizer believes is the truthfulness of the other person's claims.

The Awareness and Opinion frames also include senses of "glauben," but those are weaker than in this frame; in Certainty, there is the implication that the Content is true and correct, in Awareness, the Content is part of the Cognizer's subjective view of reality, and in Opinion, the Content is simply an opinion, not fact.


Further details:

Word formation:

"glaubhaft" ("plausible," "credible"), "glaubwürdig" ("credible," "believably," "reliable")

Synonyms:

"meinen," "überzeugt sein (von)"

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„glauben“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/glauben>, abgerufen am 17.02.2022.

 

This word is part of the vocabulary for the Goethe-Zertifikat A1.

Alternate Forms:

(er) glaubt, glaubte, hat geglaubt
sicher adjective sure, certain

Details:

sure, certain

This adjective is used to indicate that a Cognizer knows some Content to be true or correct; it is well translated as either "sure" or "certain."  Most often, this adjective is used after the verb "sein" to describe a Cognizer as certain, and it can appear with or without mention of a Topic or Content.

Content is often described in a dependent clause, using "dass" ("that"), while the Topic (which is more general and typically consists of only a noun) is less common, and would appear in the genitive case. Note that this use of the genitive is equivalent to using "of" in English; the preposition "von" ("of"), however, is not used with "sicher" to introduce a Topic or Content. This is an important crosslinguistic difference.

Because the Content FE frequently refers to something mentioned previously, it is common to see it appear as "dessen" ("of it/that") or "da" ("of it/that," lit. "there"). "Dessen" is slightly more proper, while "da" is more colloquial and informal.

"Sicher" is also part of a multi-word expression, "sich sicher sein" ("to be sure / certain"), which evokes this same frame (see separate LU entry).

Note: It is important to know that "sicher" has other, related senses that evoke different frames (e.g. "safe, secure" with relation to danger, or "sure" in terms of likelihood). Most notably, its use directly before a noun - as an attributive adjective - indicates that Certainty is not at play. In the Certainty frame, this adjective is not typically used before a Cognizer, so if you see it used directly before a noun, that is a sign it's evoking a different frame.


Further details:

Word formation:

"sichergehen" ("to make sure (that)"), "sicherstellen" ("to ensure," "to guarantee"), "sicherlich" ("certainly," "surely")

Synonyms:

"bestimmt," "absolut," "definitiv," "fraglos," "gewiss," "todsicher"

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„sicher“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/sicher>, abgerufen am 18.02.2022.

 

This word is part of the vocabulary for the Goethe-Zertifikat B1.

Example Sentences:

  1. Bist du sicher?
  2. Was macht Sie da so sicher?
  3. Dessen kann man sicher sein.
  4. Ich bin sicherdass dies etwas bedeutet.
  5. Da waren wir sicher, dass sie zurückkommt.
  6. Nur ein Narzisst ist seiner selbst so sehr sicher.
  7. Sind Sie sicher, dass heute Ruhetag ist? – Ja, das weiß ich genau.
  8. Am Montag ist hier Ruhetag. Das weiß ich ganz sicher.
  1. Are you sure?
  2. What makes you about that so sure?
  3. Of that one can be sure.
  4. I am sure that this means something.
  5. Then we were sure, that she is coming back.
  6. Only a narcissist is so very sure of himself.
  7. Are you sure that today is their day off [closed]?
  8. Monday is their day off / Monday is closed. That I know for sure.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER ist sicher.
  2. COGNIZER ist sicher, dass CONTENT.
  3. COGNIZER ist da sicher, dass CONTENT.
  4. Etwas macht COGNIZER sicher.
  5. Etwas macht COGNIZER sicher, dass CONTENT.
  1. COGNIZER is certain.
  2. COGNIZER is sure that CONTENT.
  3. COGNIZER is sure (of it) that CONTENT.
  4. Something makes COGNIZER certain.
  5. Something makes COGNIZER certain that CONTENT.

Details:

sure, certain

This adjective is used to indicate that a Cognizer knows some Content to be true or correct; it is well translated as either "sure" or "certain."  Most often, this adjective is used after the verb "sein" to describe a Cognizer as certain, and it can appear with or without mention of a Topic or Content.

Content is often described in a dependent clause, using "dass" ("that"), while the Topic (which is more general and typically consists of only a noun) is less common, and would appear in the genitive case. Note that this use of the genitive is equivalent to using "of" in English; the preposition "von" ("of"), however, is not used with "sicher" to introduce a Topic or Content. This is an important crosslinguistic difference.

Because the Content FE frequently refers to something mentioned previously, it is common to see it appear as "dessen" ("of it/that") or "da" ("of it/that," lit. "there"). "Dessen" is slightly more proper, while "da" is more colloquial and informal.

"Sicher" is also part of a multi-word expression, "sich sicher sein" ("to be sure / certain"), which evokes this same frame (see separate LU entry).

Note: It is important to know that "sicher" has other, related senses that evoke different frames (e.g. "safe, secure" with relation to danger, or "sure" in terms of likelihood). Most notably, its use directly before a noun - as an attributive adjective - indicates that Certainty is not at play. In the Certainty frame, this adjective is not typically used before a Cognizer, so if you see it used directly before a noun, that is a sign it's evoking a different frame.


Further details:

Word formation:

"sichergehen" ("to make sure (that)"), "sicherstellen" ("to ensure," "to guarantee"), "sicherlich" ("certainly," "surely")

Synonyms:

"bestimmt," "absolut," "definitiv," "fraglos," "gewiss," "todsicher"

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„sicher“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/sicher>, abgerufen am 18.02.2022.

 

This word is part of the vocabulary for the Goethe-Zertifikat B1.

Alternate Forms:

sicherer, am sichersten
sicher: sich (dat.) sicher sein multi-word expression to be sure, to be certain

Details:

to be sure, to be certain

This multi-word expression is used to indicate that a Cognizer is sure about something. The Cognizer appears as the subject of the verb "sein" ("to be") and also as the dative reflexive pronoun (see grammar note for specific forms). Note that the adjective "sicher" can be used in a very similar way without the dative reflexive as well (see its entry in this frame for details of how to encode Content and Topic), but "sich sicher sein" appears with even more variations. The preposition "bei" ("at, with"), for example, is sometimes used with "sich sicher sein" to introduce a Topic, and can even be elaborated with a "dass" clause to give details about the Content; see examples 9 and 10.

To add the equivalent of "about that" (referring to the Content or Topic),  there are two options, one more grammatically correct and one more colloquial (i.e. more common in spoken language). The former, more proper variant is "dessen" (genitive, "of it/that"), as in "Dessen bin ich mir sicher" ("Of that I am certain"). The latter is "da" ("there"), as in "Da bin ich mir nicht sicher" ("About that I'm not sure").


Further details:

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„sicher“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/sicher>, abgerufen am 18.02.2022.

Example Sentences:

  1. Bist du dir sicher?
  2. Ich bin mir  dessen ganz sicher.
  3. Inzwischen ist er sich  sicher des Erfolgs.
  4. Dialogbereitschaft und Integration setzen voraus, dass man sich des eigenen Standpunkts sicher ist.
  5. Er kann sich  sicher seindass sein neuer Trainer hinter ihm steht.
  6. Ich war mir  sicherdass sie mich hören konnte.
  7. Und ganz sicher war ich mir da an diesem Abend auch nicht mehr.
  8. Natürlich frage ich mich, von wem ich verraten wurde – obwohl ich mir ziemlich sicher bin, es war dieser neue Mitarbeiter.
  9. Man konnte sich  bei ihm nie sicher sein.
  10. Wenn wir uns bei einer Intervention sicher sind, dass sie hilft, dann sollte sie auch allen Versicherten verschrieben werden können.

 

  1. Are you sure?
  2. I am of that completely certain.
  3. In the meantime he is sure about the success.
  4. Dialogue-openness and integration presuppose that one is sure of one's own position.
  5. He can be sure that his new coach stands behind him.
  6. I was sure that she could hear me.
  7. And completely sure I was on that evening no longer.
  8. Naturally, I wonder whom I was betrayed by – even though I am fairly sure it was this new coworker.
  9. One could never be sure about him.
  10. If we are certain about an intervention that it helps, then it should also be possible to prescribe it to all insured people.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. "Er verliebt sich in Melanie," "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER ist sich sicher.
  2. COGNIZER ist sich CONTENT.genitive sicher.
  3. COGNIZER ist sich TOPIC.genitive sicher.
  4. COGNIZER ist sich sicher, dass CONTENT.
  5. COGNIZER ist sich bei TOPIC sicher.
  6. COGNIZER ist sich bei TOPIC sicher, dass CONTENT.
  1. COGNIZER is sure.
  2. COGNIZER is sure of CONTENT.
  3. COGNIZER is sure of TOPIC.
  4. COGNIZER is sure that CONTENT.
  5. COGNIZER is sure when it comes to TOPIC.
  6. COGNIZER is sure when it comes to TOPIC that CONTENT.

Details:

to be sure, to be certain

This multi-word expression is used to indicate that a Cognizer is sure about something. The Cognizer appears as the subject of the verb "sein" ("to be") and also as the dative reflexive pronoun (see grammar note for specific forms). Note that the adjective "sicher" can be used in a very similar way without the dative reflexive as well (see its entry in this frame for details of how to encode Content and Topic), but "sich sicher sein" appears with even more variations. The preposition "bei" ("at, with"), for example, is sometimes used with "sich sicher sein" to introduce a Topic, and can even be elaborated with a "dass" clause to give details about the Content; see examples 9 and 10.

To add the equivalent of "about that" (referring to the Content or Topic),  there are two options, one more grammatically correct and one more colloquial (i.e. more common in spoken language). The former, more proper variant is "dessen" (genitive, "of it/that"), as in "Dessen bin ich mir sicher" ("Of that I am certain"). The latter is "da" ("there"), as in "Da bin ich mir nicht sicher" ("About that I'm not sure").


Further details:

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„sicher“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/sicher>, abgerufen am 18.02.2022.

Alternate Forms:

(er) ist sich sicher, war sich sicher, ist sich sicher gewesen
Zweifel, der noun doubt

Details:

doubt

"Der Zweifel" refers to the uncertainty of a Cognizer about the correctness of some Content or Topic. It is used as in English.

Further details:

Wordformation:

"der Zweifelsfall" ("case of doubt;" "im Zweifelsfalls," "in case of doubt"), "zweifelsfrei" ("doubtless," "beyond doubt," "absolutely certain"), "zweifelsohne" ("hands down," "without any doubt," "undoubtedly," "doubtless"), "zweifelhaft" ("doubtful," "dubious"), "die Gewissenszweifel (pl.)" ("moral doubts"), "bezweifeln" ("to doubt"), among others

Synonyms:

"der Argwohn," "das Misstrauen," "die Skepsis," "die Ungewissheit," "die Unsicherheit," among others

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„Zweifel“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/Zweifel>, abgerufen am 28.11.2022.

 

This word is part of the vocabulary for the Goethe-Zertifikat B1.

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Bischof äußert Zweifel, ob der Krieg als äußerstes Mittel der Politik tauge.
  2. Die Experten hegen Zweifel an der Richtigkeit des Berichts.
  3. Der Arzt meldete Zweifel an der Wirksamkeit des Medikaments an.
  4. Die Zweifel an seiner Version der Geschichte waren in ihrem Gesicht zu lesen.
  5. Castillos leise Zweifel an der Theorie haben ihre Berechtigung.
  1. The bishop expresses doubts whether the war is good as the most extreme means of politics.
  2. The experts have doubts about the correctness of the report.
  3. The doctor announced doubts about the effectiveness of the drug.
  4. The doubts about his version of the story could be read in her face.
  5. Castillo's slight doubts about the theory have their justification.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER hat / äußert / hegt Zweifel.
  2. COGNIZER äußert / hegt Zweifel an CONTENT / TOPIC.
  3. COGNIZER äußert / hegt Zweifel, ob CONTENT / TOPIC.
  4. COGNIZER meldet Zweifel an.
  5. [Zweifel an CONTENT / TOPIC]
  6. [Zweifel, ob CONTENT / TOPIC]
  7. [nagende / quälende / bange / grundlose / berechtigte / leise / ernsthafte / etc. Zweifel]
  1. COGNIZER has / expresses / entertains, has doubt(s).
  2. COGNIZER has / expresses / entertains, has doubt(s) about CONTENT / TOPIC.
  3. COGNIZER has / expresses / entertains, has doubt(s) whether CONTENT / TOPIC.
  4. COGNIZER announces doubt.
  5. [doubt about CONTENT / TOPIC]
  6. [doubt whether CONTENT / TOPIC]
  7. [lurking / nagging / fearful / unfounded / legitimate / slight / serious / etc. doubts]

Details:

doubt

"Der Zweifel" refers to the uncertainty of a Cognizer about the correctness of some Content or Topic. It is used as in English.

Further details:

Wordformation:

"der Zweifelsfall" ("case of doubt;" "im Zweifelsfalls," "in case of doubt"), "zweifelsfrei" ("doubtless," "beyond doubt," "absolutely certain"), "zweifelsohne" ("hands down," "without any doubt," "undoubtedly," "doubtless"), "zweifelhaft" ("doubtful," "dubious"), "die Gewissenszweifel (pl.)" ("moral doubts"), "bezweifeln" ("to doubt"), among others

Synonyms:

"der Argwohn," "das Misstrauen," "die Skepsis," "die Ungewissheit," "die Unsicherheit," among others

More information in DWDS, the digital dictionary of the German language:

„Zweifel“, bereitgestellt durch das Digitale Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, <https://www.dwds.de/wb/Zweifel>, abgerufen am 28.11.2022.

 

This word is part of the vocabulary for the Goethe-Zertifikat B1.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Zweifel