Frame description

These LUs describe various aspects of employment, where an Employee works for Employer in a certain Position or Field, completing assigned Tasks for Compensation. Both Employer and Employee must agree to enter into the employment relationship (the Employer hires the Employee, and the Employee agrees to fill the Position in exchange for Compensation), and either party can end the employment relationship (the Employee can quit, or the Employer can fire the Employee).

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Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms

Frame Elements

Frame Element descriptions (on hover):

The person who works to complete some Task for Compensation.

The person or institution who gives Compensation to the Employee.

The label given to the kind of employment (e.g. as an engineer).

The field in which the Employee works (e.g. finance, construction).

The action the Employee must do for the Employer.

The payment an Employee receives in exchange for work.

Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
(einen Job) annehmen multi-word expression to accept (a job)

Details:

to take (a job), to accept (a job)

This multi-word expression includes the separable verb "annehmen" and any one of a variety of terms similar to "der Job," including, but not limited to "die Stelle" ("the position"), "die Arbeit" ("the work"), "die Beschäftigung" ("the occupation, employment") and "die Aufgabe" ("the task"). Don't forget to put the "job"-word in the accusative case!

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Fotografin nimmt einen Job in einem Verlag an.
  2. Er wollte die Stelle bei der Frankfurter Zeitung annehmen.
  3. Damals hat mein Kompagnon eine Stelle als Lehrer angenommen.
  4. Es war eine gute Idee, den Job anzunehmen.
  5. Sie nahm den Job als Modechefin der Frauenzeitschrift Cover in Kopenhagen an.
  1. The photographer is taking a job in a publishing house.
  2. He wanted to take the position at the Frankfurter Zeitung.
  3. Back then, my partner took a position as a teacher.
  4. It was a good idea to take the job.
  5. She accepted the job as fashion manager of the women's magazine Cover in Copenhagen.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job an.
  2. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job als POSITION an.
  3. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job bei EMPLOYER an.
  4. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job bei EMPLOYER als POSITION an.
  1. EMPLOYEE accepts a job.
  2. EMPLOYEE accepts a job as POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE accepts a job at EMPLOYER.
  4. EMPLOYEE accepts a job at EMPLOYER as POSITION.

Details:

to take (a job), to accept (a job)

This multi-word expression includes the separable verb "annehmen" and any one of a variety of terms similar to "der Job," including, but not limited to "die Stelle" ("the position"), "die Arbeit" ("the work"), "die Beschäftigung" ("the occupation, employment") and "die Aufgabe" ("the task"). Don't forget to put the "job"-word in the accusative case!

Alternate Forms:

(er) nimmt (einen Job) an, hat (einen Job) angenommen, nahm (einen Job) an
(einen Job) kündigen multi-word expression to quit (a job), to terminate

Details:

to quit (a job), to terminate employment, to terminate (a contract, an employee)

The verb "kündigen" can be used with a noun in the accusative case to convey the meaning that the Employee is quitting a job, terminating their employment. To include the effective date of the termination of employment, use the preposition "zu," for example: "Ich kündige zu dem 1.Oktober" ("effective October 1").

It is also possible to use this verb from the Employer's perspective to mean "to terminate employment" or with the same meaning as "entlassen" ("to fire"). When the Employer is the subject of the verb, the Employee appears as the dative object, as in "dem Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). In casual spoken language and in Austria, the Employee may appear in accusative instead, as in "den Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). 

In the "entlassen" ("to fire") sense, "kündigen" is usually used in the passive voice, such as "ihnen werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired") or in spoken language, "sie werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired").

Note that this versatile verb can also be used in other frames to describe terminating a variety of contracts, such as rental agreements, or credit.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich kündige meine Stelle.
  2. Sabine will zum 10. April bei der Pharmafirma kündigen.
  3. Sie hatte wegen Probleme mit dem Vorgesetzten ihren Job gekündigt.
  4. Sie wurden gestern gekündigt?
  5. 200-Kilo-Mann wird gekündigt, weil er zu dick ist.
  6. Darf einer Angestellten gekündigt werden, weil sie ihr Kopftuch nicht ablegen will?
  7. Unternehmen kündigen ihren Angestellten und lassen sie nur noch als Selbstständige arbeiten.
  8. Aber in den USA preschte der Kopiererfabrikant Xerox jüngst abschreckend vor und kündigte 40 allzu netzpräsenten Angestellten.
  1. I am quitting my job.
  2. Sabine wants effective April 10 to quit the pharmaceutical company.
  3. She had because of problems with her boss quit her job.
  4. You got fired yesterday?
  5. 200 kilo man gets fired because he is too fat.
  6. May an employee (female) be fired, because she doesn't want to remove her head-covering?
  7. Businesses terminate their employees and let them work only still as independent contractors.
  8. But in the USA surged the copy-machine-maker Xerox newly deterringly ahead, and terminated 40 all too internet-present employees.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE kündigt.
  2. EMPLOYEE kündigt einen Job.
  3. EMPLOYEE kündigt POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE kündigt bei EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYER kündigt EMPLOYEE.dative.
  6. EMPLOYEE wird gekündigt.
  7. EMPLOYEE wird von EMPLOYER gekündigt.
  1. EMPLOYEE quits.
  2. EMPLOYEE quits a job.
  3. EMPLOYEE quits POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE terminates employment at EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYER terminates EMPLOYEE.
  6. EMPLOYEE gets fired.
  7. EMPLOYEE is fired by EMPLOYER.

Details:

to quit (a job), to terminate employment, to terminate (a contract, an employee)

The verb "kündigen" can be used with a noun in the accusative case to convey the meaning that the Employee is quitting a job, terminating their employment. To include the effective date of the termination of employment, use the preposition "zu," for example: "Ich kündige zu dem 1.Oktober" ("effective October 1").

It is also possible to use this verb from the Employer's perspective to mean "to terminate employment" or with the same meaning as "entlassen" ("to fire"). When the Employer is the subject of the verb, the Employee appears as the dative object, as in "dem Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). In casual spoken language and in Austria, the Employee may appear in accusative instead, as in "den Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). 

In the "entlassen" ("to fire") sense, "kündigen" is usually used in the passive voice, such as "ihnen werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired") or in spoken language, "sie werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired").

Note that this versatile verb can also be used in other frames to describe terminating a variety of contracts, such as rental agreements, or credit.

Alternate Forms:

(er) kündigt (einen Job), hat (einen Job) gekündigt, kündigte (einen Job)
angestellt adjective employed

Details:

employed

From the verb "anstellen," this adjective is used much like its English translation. To indicate non-temporary employment, one can add "fest" as an adverb, as in: "Jens ist bei Migros fest angestellt" ("Jens is steadily employed at Migros").

Example Sentences:

  1. Als was bist du beim Zirkus angestellt?
  2. Sie ist bei einer Bremer Brauerei fest angestellt.
  3. Wie heißt das Unternehmen, bei dem der Mann angestellt ist?
  1. As what are you employed at the circus?
  2. She is at a Bremen brewery permanently employed.
  3. What is the name of the company at which the man is employed?

Grammar:

Making Adjectives from Verbs

In German (just as in English), the past participles of verbs (with the -ed ending in English) can be used as adjectives, known as "participial adjectives." Add an adjective ending when appropriate. Even a verb's present participle can be used as an adjective. This form of the verb is similar in meaning to English ing-forms, and is formed in German by adding a "d" (and an adjective ending, if necessary) to the infinitive form of the verb. Adjectives formed in this way apply to the type of frame element that would fill the subject role of the verb (e.g. überraschend applies to a Stimulus, and  ).

Example: enttäuschen, überraschen (normal use as verbs)

     Jens enttäuscht seine Mutter. (Jens disappoints his mother.)

     Das Ende der Geschichte überrascht Lena. (The end of the story surprises Lena.)

Adjectives from Past Participles: 

Example: enttäuschen (to disappoint) > enttäuscht

     Seine Mutter war enttäuscht, dass er bei der Prüfung durchgefallen ist. (His mother was disappointed that he failed the test.)

     Die enttäuschte Mutter weint. (The disappointed mother cries.)

The way frame elements are realized with the verb determine what the adjective can be used to describe. Details are given in the table below.

Subject of VerbDirect ObjectAdjective applies to:Examples
StimulusExperiencerExperienceraufgeregt (worked up), schockiert (shocked), enttäuscht (disappointed)
Experiencer

Content or Stimulus

Content or Stimulus

gefürchtet (feared), gehasst (hated), geliebt (loved)

*Note that this is not the same as passive voice, which also uses a past participle. See Grimm Grammar for infomation about passive.

Adjectives from Present Participles:

Example: überraschen > überraschend (surprising)

     Das Ende der Geschichte war überraschend. (The end of the story was surprising.)

     Das war ein überraschendes Ende. (That was a surprising ending.)

 

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE ist als POSITION angestellt.
  2. EMPLOYEE ist bei EMPLOYER angestellt.
  3. EMPLOYEE ist bei EMPLOYER als POSITION angestellt.
  1. EMPLOYEE is employed as POSITION.
  2. EMPLOYEE is employed by EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE is employed as POSITION by EMPLOYER.

Details:

employed

From the verb "anstellen," this adjective is used much like its English translation. To indicate non-temporary employment, one can add "fest" as an adverb, as in: "Jens ist bei Migros fest angestellt" ("Jens is steadily employed at Migros").

anstellen verb to hire, to employ

Details:

to hire, to employ

Used like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Firma stellt jeden Oktober 20 Kassierer an.
  2. Mitglieder der Missions-Gesellschaft stellten ihn als Prediger an.
  3. Inzwischen mußte die Fabrik acht zusätzliche Arbeiter anstellen, um die Arbeitslast bewältigen zu können.
  4. VW hatte erwogen, Arbeiter in einer Tochterfirma anzustellen und niedriger zu bezahlen.
  1. The firm hires every October 20 cashiers.
  2. Members of the mission society hired him as a preacher.
  3. Meanwhile, the factory had to hire eight additional workers, in order to be able to handle the workload.
  4. VW had considered hiring workers in a subsidiary company and paying them less.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE an.
  2. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE als POSITION an.
  1. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE as POSITION.

Details:

to hire, to employ

Used like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

(er) stellt an, hat angestellt, stellte an
Arbeit suchen multi-word expression to look for work

Details:

to look for work

This construction focuses on the actions of an Employee looking for employment. It is most general when the word "Arbeit" ("work") is used without an article. When used with an article, such as "eine Arbeit," ("a job") the focus is often on the type of employment, i.e. on the Position desired. However, without an article, the Position can be indicated following the preposition "als." When the Employer offering the Position is expressed, it is introduced by the preposition "bei" ("at), as in: "Gustav sucht Arbeit bei Siemens als Programmierer" ("Gustav is looking for work at Siemens as a programmer"). Finally, when the Field is indicated, the preposition in is used with the dative case (e.g. "
er sucht Arbeit im Finanzsektor," "he is looking for work in the financial sector").

Note that this verb is sometimes used with a reflexive pronoun (in dative). This adds a meaning like "for myself" in a sentence such as "ich begann mir Arbeit zu suchen," ("I started looking for work for myself").

Example Sentences:

  1. Er ist wieder auf deutschem Boden und sucht in Stuttgart Arbeit.
  2. Ich werde mir eine Arbeit suchen, die mir gefällt.
  3. Wir haben Arbeit in Landwirtschaft gesucht.
  4. Dann sucht er Arbeit bei Daimler.
  5. Sie sucht Arbeit als Küchenhilfe.
  1. He is back on German ground and is looking in Stuttgart for work.
  2. I will look for myself for a job that pleases me.
  3. We looked for work in landscaping.
  4. Then he looks for work at Daimler.
  5. She is looking for work as kitchen help.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit.
  2. EMPLOYEE sucht eine Arbeit.
  3. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit in FIELD.dative.
  4. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit bei EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit als POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER.
  7. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  8. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  1. EMPLOYEE looks for work.
  2. EMPLOYEE looks for a job.
  3. EMPLOYEE looks for work in FIELD.
  4. EMPLOYEE looks for work at EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE looks for work as POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE looks for work in FIELD at EMPLOYER.
  7. EMPLOYEE looks for work at EMPLOYER as POSITION.
  8. EMPLOYEE looks for work in FIELD at EMPLOYER as POSITION.

Details:

to look for work

This construction focuses on the actions of an Employee looking for employment. It is most general when the word "Arbeit" ("work") is used without an article. When used with an article, such as "eine Arbeit," ("a job") the focus is often on the type of employment, i.e. on the Position desired. However, without an article, the Position can be indicated following the preposition "als." When the Employer offering the Position is expressed, it is introduced by the preposition "bei" ("at), as in: "Gustav sucht Arbeit bei Siemens als Programmierer" ("Gustav is looking for work at Siemens as a programmer"). Finally, when the Field is indicated, the preposition in is used with the dative case (e.g. "
er sucht Arbeit im Finanzsektor," "he is looking for work in the financial sector").

Note that this verb is sometimes used with a reflexive pronoun (in dative). This adds a meaning like "for myself" in a sentence such as "ich begann mir Arbeit zu suchen," ("I started looking for work for myself").

Alternate Forms:

(er) sucht Arbeit, hat Arbeit gesucht, suchte Arbeit
arbeiten verb to work

Details:

to work

This verb is used more or less identically to its English equivalent. It is both the general term for "to work", and is also used more specifically to both refer to manual labor and to long-term work. The latter is used in opposition to "jobben" ("to work"), which is used for temporary work.

The preposition "bei" is used to express the Employer, where English uses the preposition "at" (e.g. "bei Starbucks," "at Starbucks;" "bei Edeka," "at Edeka"). "Für" ("for") can also introduce the Employer, which usually construes the Employer as more of a person or a group of people than as a place (which is the case for "bei"). In other, less common situations, the noun that denotes the Employer can allow other prepositions to be used (e.g. "an der Uni," "at the university;" "am Institut," "at the institute").

Example Sentences:

  1. Annette arbeitete damals in Ost-Berlin.
  2. Er hat beim Landgericht in Prag gearbeitet.
  3. Barbarossa arbeitete als Küchengehilfe.
  4. Zuerst arbeitete er im Maschinenbaufach, dann in geodätischen Instrumenten.
  5. Niemand würde für einen Hungerlohn arbeiten.
  6. Also ab März arbeiten Sie für mich, was bedeutet, daß Sie für mich und den Lehrstuhl arbeiten.
  7. Der Autor arbeitet als Verhaltensforscher am Institut für Wildbiologie und Jagdkunde der Universität Göttingen.
  8. Er arbeitet acht Stunden pro Tag.
  9. Ich verdiene netto 1200 Euro, dafür muß ich 10 Stunden am Tag arbeiten.
  10. Er arbeitet jeden Tag von Viertel nach neun bis sieben.
  11. Sieben Jahre lang haben sie dann an ihrem Projekt gearbeitet.
  12. Danach arbeitet er zwölf Jahre in seinem Beruf als Anwalt.
  13. Seine Firma arbeitet im Auftrag von MAN Roland im Irak.
  14. In Mannheim und Heidelberg arbeitete er als Praktikant dann für verschiedene Firmen.
  1. Annette worked back then in East Berlin.
  2. He worked at the regional court in Prague.
  3. Barbarossa worked as a kitchen helper.
  4. He first worked in mechanical engineering, then in geodetic instruments.
  5. No one would for starvation wages work.
  6. So as of March, you work for me, which means that you for me and the chair work.
  7. The author works as a behaviorist at the Institute for Wildlife and Hunting Studies of the University of Göttingen.
  8. He works eight hours per day.
  9. I earn net 1200 Euros, for that I must work 10 hours a day.
  10. He works every day from quarter after nine until seven.
  11. Seven years long have they then worked on their project.
  12. After that he works for twelve years in his profession as an attorney.
  13. His company works under contract of MAN Roland in Iraq.
  14. In Mannheim and Heidelberg he worked as an intern, then for various companies.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE arbeitet.
  2. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE arbeitet für EMPLOYER.
  4. EMPLOYEE arbeitet an TASK.dative.
  5. EMPLOYEE arbeitet als POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE arbeitet in FIELD.
  7. EMPLOYEE arbeitet für COMPENSATION.
  8. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  9. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  10. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER für COMPENSATION.
  11. EMPLOYEE arbeitet als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  1. EMPLOYEE works.
  2. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE works for EMPLOYER.
  4. EMPLOYEE works on TASK.
  5. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE works in FIELD.
  7. EMPLOYEE works for COMPENSATION
  8. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION
  9. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION for COMPENSATION.
  10. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER for COMPENSATION.
  11. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION for COMPENSATION.

Details:

to work

This verb is used more or less identically to its English equivalent. It is both the general term for "to work", and is also used more specifically to both refer to manual labor and to long-term work. The latter is used in opposition to "jobben" ("to work"), which is used for temporary work.

The preposition "bei" is used to express the Employer, where English uses the preposition "at" (e.g. "bei Starbucks," "at Starbucks;" "bei Edeka," "at Edeka"). "Für" ("for") can also introduce the Employer, which usually construes the Employer as more of a person or a group of people than as a place (which is the case for "bei"). In other, less common situations, the noun that denotes the Employer can allow other prepositions to be used (e.g. "an der Uni," "at the university;" "am Institut," "at the institute").

Alternate Forms:

(er) arbeitet, hat gearbeitet, arbeitete
arbeitslos adjective unemployed

Details:

unemployed

This term is used the same as in English.

Example Sentences:

  1. Am nächsten Morgen war er arbeitslos.
  2. Sie hatten keine richtige Arbeit, waren aber auch nicht arbeitslos.
  3. Natürlich ist es nicht einfach, arbeitslos zu sein.
  4. Über die Hälfte der Eingewanderten ist auch nach dem fünften Jahr in Deutschland arbeitslos.
  5. Die Folge sind immer mehr arbeitslose Arbeiter und sinkende Löhne.
  6. Die Geschichte um die arbeitslosen Stahlarbeiter, die in ihrer Not eine Strippertruppe gründen, spielt nicht zufällig in Sheffield.
  7. Im selben Jahr gab es insgesamt 4579 arbeitslose Chemiker, immerhin 19 Prozent weniger als ein Jahr zuvor.
  1. The next morning, he was unemployed.
  2. They had no proper work, were although also not unemployed.
  3. Naturally, it is not easy to be unemployed.
  4. Over half of the immigrants are also after the fifth year in Germany unemployed.
  5. The consequence is always more unemployed workers and sinking wages.
  6. The story about the unemployed steel workers, who in their hardship create a stripper-troop, is set not by accident in Sheffield.
  7. In the same year there were in total 4579 unemployed chemists, still 19 percent less than one year before.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE ist/wird arbeitslos.
  2. [arbeitslos- EMPLOYEE]
  1. EMPLOYEE is/becomes unemployed.
  2. [unemployed EMPLOYEE]

Details:

unemployed

This term is used the same as in English.

bei (dat.) preposition at

Details:

at

This dative preposition is used together with an Employer to refer to where an Employee works. This is not meant to refer to the physical location, but rather the institution (or sometimes the individual person). 

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach dem Examen bekam er sofort eine Stelle bei Siemens in Berlin.
  2. Nun habe ich ein Angebot als Lagerist bei Lidl.
  3. Sein Vertrag bei Bayer Leverkusen wurde nach einer Prügelei aufgelöst.
  1. After the exam, he immediately got a position at Siemens.
  2. Now I have an offer as a stockman at Lidl.
  3. His contract at Bayer Leverkusen was annulled after a fist fight.

Grammar:

Dative Prepositions

For these prepositions, the noun that follows must be in the dative case. The charts below show the articles in dative. Don't forget to add an extra "n" to dative plurals!

  • aus
  • außer
  • bei
  • mit 
  • nach
  • seit
  • von 
  • zu
 

 der-Wörter

 ein-Wörter
m.demeinem
f.dereiner
n.demeinem
pl.den ---n(meinen ---n)

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER.
  1. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER.

Details:

at

This dative preposition is used together with an Employer to refer to where an Employee works. This is not meant to refer to the physical location, but rather the institution (or sometimes the individual person). 

bezahlen verb to pay

Details:

to pay

Although this verb can be (and is occasionally) used to describe how an Employer pays for a Task, it is primarily used to discuss how an Employee is paid for a Task. It is thus most commonly used in the passive and without reference to the Employer. When referring to the Task that is being paid for, German uses the preposition "für," here equivalent to the English "for."

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich werde bezahlt, um Sie zu behandeln, aber nicht, um Sie zu unterhalten.
  2. Die Jugendlichen werden für ihre Arbeit bezahlt.
  3. Es gibt viele Mitarbeiter, die gut bezahlt werden.
  4. Ich bin dafür, dass alle sofort besser bezahlt werden.
  5. Die chinesische Firma Nao Baijin will Menschen genau dafür bezahlen.
  1. I am paid to deal with you but not to entertain you.
  2. The youths are paid for their work.
  3. There are many workers who are paid well.
  4. I am for everyone immediately being paid better.
  5. The Chinese company Nao Baijin wants to pay people for exactly that.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE wird bezahlt.
  2. EMPLOYEE wird für TASK bezahlt.
  3. EMPLOYEE wird COMPENSATION für TASK bezahlt.
  4. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE.
  5. EMPLOYER bezahlt COMPENSATION.
  6. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE für TASK.
  8. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION für TASK.
  1. EMPLOYEE is paid.
  2. EMPLOYEE is paid for TASK.
  3. EMPLOYEE is paid COMPENSATION for TASK.
  4. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE.
  5. EMPLOYER pays COMPENSATION.
  6. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE for TASK.
  8. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION for TASK.

Details:

to pay

Although this verb can be (and is occasionally) used to describe how an Employer pays for a Task, it is primarily used to discuss how an Employee is paid for a Task. It is thus most commonly used in the passive and without reference to the Employer. When referring to the Task that is being paid for, German uses the preposition "für," here equivalent to the English "for."

Alternate Forms:

(er) bezahlt, hat bezahlt, bezahlte
das Angebot noun offer

Details:

offer

The noun is used as its English counterpart. It is often used together with the word "Job" in the compound noun "das Jobangebot" ("job offer"). Very often, the only frame element present is the Employee who receives the offer, but other details, especially the Position or Employer are sometimes included.

Example Sentences:

  1. un habe ich ein Angebot als Lagerist bei Lidl.
  2. Nach dem einjährigen Kurs bekam sie vier Jobangebote.
  3. Sie hörte von einem Jobangebot als Sekretärin an einer Universität.
  4. Er hatte auch ein Jobangebot als Geschäftsführer.
  5. Als er überlegt, wie er mit 16 Pfennigen den Tag überstehen soll, macht ihm ein alter Freund aus Wien das Angebotals "Gesellschaftstänzer" in einem Hotel zu arbeiten.
  1. Now I have an offer as a stockman at Lidl.
  2. After a one-year course, she received four job offers.
  3. She heard about a job offer as a secretary at a university.
  4. He had a job offer as a manager.
  5. As he ponders how he should survive the day with 16 pennies, an old friend from Vienna makes him the offer to work as "ballroom dancer" in a hotel.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE bekommt Angebot.
  2. EMPLOYEE bekommt Angebot als POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE bekommt Angebot als POSITION bei EMPLOYER.
  1. EMPLOYEE receives offer.
  2. EMPLOYEE receives offer as POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE receives offer as POSITION at EMPLOYER.

Details:

offer

The noun is used as its English counterpart. It is often used together with the word "Job" in the compound noun "das Jobangebot" ("job offer"). Very often, the only frame element present is the Employee who receives the offer, but other details, especially the Position or Employer are sometimes included.

Alternate Forms:

die Angebote (pl.)
das Gehalt noun pay, salary

Details:

pay, salary

This noun corresponds closely to the English "salary" implying a regular payment to an Employee for work, often disbursed on a regular monthly scale. It is not used to refer to the amount paid for hourly work.

Example Sentences:

  1. Viele Familien in Deutschland verdienen zwei Gehälter.
  2. Er hatte kaum die Mittel, den Beamten ihre Gehälter zu zahlen.
  3. Jetzt wachsen die Gehälter schneller als die Gewinne.
  4. Die Spieler bekamen ihr Gehalt, ohne dafür arbeiten zu müssen.
  5. Bis heute erhalten Universitätsprofessoren ein höheres Gehalt als ihre FH-Kollegen.
  6. Der 53jährige Kunstwissenschaftler wird zum 31. Dezember betriebsbedingt gekündigt und bis dahin bei vollem Gehalt von der Arbeit freigestellt.
  1. Many families in Germany earn two salaries.
  2. He had hardly the means to pay the officials their salaries.
  3. Now the salaries are growing faster than the profits.
  4. The players received their salaries without having to work for it.
  5. Up to today university professors receive a higher salary than their FH-colleagues. (FH = Fachhochschule, "technical school")
  6. The 53 year-old art historian is as of the 31st of December layed off and until then at full salary exempted from work.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE erhält ein Gehalt.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Gehalt]
  1. EMPLOYEE receives a salary.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's salary]

Details:

pay, salary

This noun corresponds closely to the English "salary" implying a regular payment to an Employee for work, often disbursed on a regular monthly scale. It is not used to refer to the amount paid for hourly work.

Alternate Forms:

die Gehälter (pl.)
das Vorstellungsgespräch noun interview

Details:

interview, lit. introduction conversation

Although this term translates directly to "introduction conversation," it is used more broadly, just like its English equivalent, "interview," to refer to the interactive process between a potential Employer and a potential Employee for a specific Position in a Field. It may include a viewing of the site of the Employer, a demonstration of the Employee's abilities to carry out the necessary Tasks for a Position. It usually involves a discussion of Compensation, as well. The term is used more or less interchangeably with "das Interview." Like the similar phenomonen in American culture, it may occur in person or over the phone ("Telefoninterview"or "Telefonvorstellungsgespräch") or via Skype ("Skype-Interview" or "Vorstellungsgespräch per Skype").

Example Sentences:

  1. Sechs Stunden dauerte sein Vorstellungsgespräch.
  2. Ich habe morgen ein Vorstellungsgespräch bei Amazon.
  3. Es ist ein gutes Zeichen, wenn das Vorstellungsgespräch etwas länger dauert.
  4. Ich hatte letzte Woche ein Vorstellungsgespräch für meinen Traumjob.
  5. Bei manchen Firmen ersetzen Accessment-Center das klassische Vorstellungsgespräch.
  1. His interview lasted six hours.
  2. I have tomorrow an interview at Amazon.
  3. It is a good sign when the interview lasts somewhat longer.
  4. I had last week an interview for my dream job.
  5. At some firms, Accessment-Centers are replacing the classical interview.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEE's Vorstellungsgespräch]
  2. EMPLOYEE hat ein Vorstellungsgespräch bei EMPLOYER.
  1. [EMPLOYEE's interview]
  2. EMPLOYEE has an interview at EMPLOYER.

Details:

interview, lit. introduction conversation

Although this term translates directly to "introduction conversation," it is used more broadly, just like its English equivalent, "interview," to refer to the interactive process between a potential Employer and a potential Employee for a specific Position in a Field. It may include a viewing of the site of the Employer, a demonstration of the Employee's abilities to carry out the necessary Tasks for a Position. It usually involves a discussion of Compensation, as well. The term is used more or less interchangeably with "das Interview." Like the similar phenomonen in American culture, it may occur in person or over the phone ("Telefoninterview"or "Telefonvorstellungsgespräch") or via Skype ("Skype-Interview" or "Vorstellungsgespräch per Skype").

Alternate Forms:

die Vorstellungsgespräche (pl.)
der Arbeitstag noun work day

Details:

work day

This noun is used more or less precisely as in English. It is contrasted with "Feiertag" ("free day" or "holiday").

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Mann kommt nach seinem Arbeitstag nach Hause.
  2. Der Ministerpräsident hat seinen letzten Arbeitstag am Dienstag.
  3. Michael Schumachers Arbeitstag endete schon nach der ersten Runde.
  4. Der Arbeitstag variiert ja nach Betrieb.
  5. Häufig dauern die Arbeitstage sehr lange.
  6. Die EU-Kommission hat jetzt 90 Arbeitstage Zeit, um zu einem Ergebnis zu gelangen.
  1. The man comes after his work day home.
  2. The Prime Minister has his last work day on Tuesday.
  3. Michael Schumacher's work day ended already after the first round.
  4. The work day varies according to business.
  5. Frequently, the work days last very long.
  6. The EU Commission has now 90 work days time to reach a conclusion.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Arbeitstag]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's work day]

Details:

work day

This noun is used more or less precisely as in English. It is contrasted with "Feiertag" ("free day" or "holiday").

Alternate Forms:

die Arbeitstage (pl.)
der Auftrag noun order, contract

Details:

order

This term is used to talk about a Task given to either an Employee by an Employer or given to another Employer by an Employer. Used with "in" (dative), it means "on behalf of" or "by order of," to indicate that the action the Employee is taking is part of a task they were contracted to do, not simply of their own accord. The expression "in Auftrag geben" ("to commission," lit. "to give an order") is also very common to express the assignment of a Task to an Employee or company. English often uses the term "contract" to refer to the order that is being assigned (e.g. "die Stadt gibt ihm den Auftrag," "the city is giving him the contract"/"the city is commissioning him"). Note that "Auftrag" does not refer to the physical paper of the contract, but rather to the agreement to complete a Task.

Example Sentences:

  1. Vor einem Jahr hat sie den Auftrag erhalten.
  2. Im Auftrag des Arbeitsamtes macht er "Bewerber-Coaching".
  3. 1939 bekam er den Auftrag, das neue Parlamentsgebäude in Ankara zu bauen.
  4. Kürzlich hat das Pentagon der Rüstungsfirma Raytheon den Auftrag gegeben, die Waffe zu modernisieren.
  5. Nur selten wird etwas über die "Red Teams" bekannt, die im Auftrag der US-Regierung hacken.
  6. Dieser hatte bezahlt, weil Chiesa seiner Putzfirma den Auftrag zur Reinigung des Altersheimes gegeben hatte.
  1. One year ago, she got the order.
  2. On behalf of the employment office he does "Applicant-Coaching."
  3. In 1939 he got the contract to build the new parlament building in Ankara.
  4. Recently the Pentagon gave the arms manufacturer Raytheon the contract to modernize the weapon.
  5. Only rarely is something about the "Red Teams" known, who hack under contract of the US-government.
  6. This one had paid, because Chiesa had given his cleaning company the order for the cleaning of the retirement home.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER gibt EMPLOYER einen Auftrag.
  2. EMPLOYER gibt EMPLOYEE einen Auftrag.
  3. EMPLOYER gibt EMPLOYEE den Auftrag, TASK.Infinitivsatz.
  4. EMPLOYEE arbeitet im Auftrag EMPLOYER.genitive.
  1. EMPLOYER gives EMPLOYER an order.
  2. EMPLOYER gives EMPLOYEE an order.
  3. EMPLOYER gives EMPLOYEE the order, TASK.infinitive_clause.
  4. EMPLOYEE works under contract of EMPLOYER.

Details:

order

This term is used to talk about a Task given to either an Employee by an Employer or given to another Employer by an Employer. Used with "in" (dative), it means "on behalf of" or "by order of," to indicate that the action the Employee is taking is part of a task they were contracted to do, not simply of their own accord. The expression "in Auftrag geben" ("to commission," lit. "to give an order") is also very common to express the assignment of a Task to an Employee or company. English often uses the term "contract" to refer to the order that is being assigned (e.g. "die Stadt gibt ihm den Auftrag," "the city is giving him the contract"/"the city is commissioning him"). Note that "Auftrag" does not refer to the physical paper of the contract, but rather to the agreement to complete a Task.

Alternate Forms:

die Aufträge (pl.)
der Beruf noun profession, career

Details:

profession, career

The meanings of its English "profession" is contained in "Beruf," however, it has a further meaning, which refers to the training a person has, even if it is not being used. In English, the phrase, "I'm a teacher by profession" typically implies that you are working as a teacher, whereas "ich bin Lehrer von Beruf" can mean that you have training as a teacher, but are not currently working.

Example Sentences:

  1. Es ist einfach ein wunderschönes Gefühl, seinen Beruf ausüben zu können.
  2. Fußballspielen ist kein Beruf wie jeder andere.
  3. Was mögen Sie besonders an Ihrem Beruf?
  4. Ihr Ex-Mann ist evangelischer Pfarrer von Beruf.
  5. Jeder Schüler muss einen Beruf lernen.
  6. Ernst hatte sich nie für meinen Beruf interessiert.
  7. Ich bin jetzt 20 Jahre in dem Beruf, aber für mich bin ich immer noch Anfänger.
  1. It is simply an amazing feeling to be able to practice one's profession.
  2. Playing soccer is not a profession like any other.
  3. What do you like especially about your profession?
  4. Her ex-husband is a Protestant preacher by profession.
  5. Every student must learn a profession.
  6. Ernst had never been interested in my profession.
  7. I am now 20 years in the profession, but for me I am still yet a beginner.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Beruf]
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Beruf als POSITION]
  3. [Beruf als POSITION]
  4. EMPLOYEE ist POSITION von Beruf.
  5. EMPLOYEE lernt einen Beruf.
  1. [EMPLOYEE's profession]
  2. [EMPLOYEE's profession as POSITION]
  3. [profession as POSITION]
  4. EMPLOYEE ist POSITION by profession.
  5. EMPLOYEE learns a profession.

Details:

profession, career

The meanings of its English "profession" is contained in "Beruf," however, it has a further meaning, which refers to the training a person has, even if it is not being used. In English, the phrase, "I'm a teacher by profession" typically implies that you are working as a teacher, whereas "ich bin Lehrer von Beruf" can mean that you have training as a teacher, but are not currently working.

Alternate Forms:

die Berufe (pl.)
der Chef noun boss

Details:

boss

This term is used like its English equivalent. It is also used to mean "manager," with the second meaning being a bit more formal than "boss." Whereas there is a difference in register, if not meaning, between "He is the boss at this branch of Deutsche Bank" and "He is the manager at this branch of Deutsche Bank," both can be represented by "Er ist der Chef bei dieser Filiale der Deutschen Bank."

Because bosses can be construed both as Employees of a company and as Employers of any Employees below them, this term can be used to refer to someone who represents either the Employer frame element or the Employee frame element, depending on the context. See the examples section.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach dem Tod von Steve Jobs wurde Tim Cook Chef des großen US-Unternehmens.
  2. Gerne würde ich diese Frage mit meinem Chef besprechen.
  3. Der Chef bat um Geduld bei der Ermittlung der Unfallursache.
  1. After the death of Steve Jobs, Tim Cook became the boss of the large US company.
  2. I would like to discuss this discuss this question with my boss.
  3. The boss asked for patience in the determination of the accident's cause.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER ist EMPLOYEEs Chef.
  2. [Chefs EMPLOYER]
  3. [Chefs EMPLOYEE]
  1. EMPLOYER is EMPLOYEE's boss.
  2. [boss's EMPLOYER]
  3. [boss's EMPLOYEE]

Details:

boss

This term is used like its English equivalent. It is also used to mean "manager," with the second meaning being a bit more formal than "boss." Whereas there is a difference in register, if not meaning, between "He is the boss at this branch of Deutsche Bank" and "He is the manager at this branch of Deutsche Bank," both can be represented by "Er ist der Chef bei dieser Filiale der Deutschen Bank."

Because bosses can be construed both as Employees of a company and as Employers of any Employees below them, this term can be used to refer to someone who represents either the Employer frame element or the Employee frame element, depending on the context. See the examples section.

Alternate Forms:

die Chefs (pl.); die Chefin (fem. sing.); die Chefinnen (fem. pl.)
der Job noun job

Details:

job

Although this term was used in the past to refer to the type of work associated with "jobben" ("to do temp work" or "to moonlight"), i.e., not the type of work that contributes to a career, the term is now used broadly like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach seinem Job im Copy-Shop kommt Felix zu mir.
  2. Seine letzten Jobs als Taxifahrer und Kinokartenabreißer waren problematisch.
  3. Er hat jetzt keine Chance, einen Job bei der Deutschen Bank zu bekommen.
  4. Wegen Überkapazitäten will China 1,8 Millionen Jobs in der Stahl- und Kohleindustrie abbauen.
  1. After his job at the copy shop, Felix comes to my place.
  2. His last jobs as taxi driver and movie ticket tearer were problematic.
  3. He has now no chance to get a job at Deutsche Bank.
  4. Due to overcapacities, China wants to phase out 1.8 million jobs in the steel and coal industries.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE hat einen Job.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Job]
  3. [Job bei EMPLOYER]
  4. [Job als POSITION]
  5. [Job in FIELD]
  6. [Job bei EMPLOYER als POSITION]
  7. [Job bei EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [Job in FIELD als POSITION]
  9. [ob bei EMPLOYER in FIELD als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE hat einen Job.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's job]
  3. [job at EMPLOYER]
  4. [job as POSITION]
  5. [job in FIELD]
  6. [job at EMPLOYER as POSITION]
  7. [job at EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [job in FIELD as POSITION]
  9. [job at EMPLOYER in FIELD as POSITION]

Details:

job

Although this term was used in the past to refer to the type of work associated with "jobben" ("to do temp work" or "to moonlight"), i.e., not the type of work that contributes to a career, the term is now used broadly like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

die Jobs (pl.)
der Kollege noun colleague

Details:

colleague

This term is used very similarly to its English equivalent. It is sometimes used similarly to the English "coworker" as well, as "der Mitarbeiter" ("coworker") is often used more widely to mean "employee." 

The masculine singular form of "Kollege" is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" at the end whenever it appears in a case other than nominative: "den Kollegen" (acc.), "dem Kollegen" (dat.), "des Kollegen" (gen.). See Grimm Grammar for details.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie haben mehr Erfolg als ihre Kollegen, verdienen aber viel weniger.
  2. Er sucht Zeugen, die die Übergriffe auf ihre Kollegin beobachtet haben.
  3. John Kerry und sein russischer Kollege Lawrow führten Gespräche am Donnerstag in Moskau.
  1. They have more success than their colleagues, but earn much less.
  2. He is looking for witnesses that saw the attacks on their colleague.
  3. John Kerry and his Russian colleague Lavrov held talks on Thursday in Moscow.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Kollege]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's colleague]

Details:

colleague

This term is used very similarly to its English equivalent. It is sometimes used similarly to the English "coworker" as well, as "der Mitarbeiter" ("coworker") is often used more widely to mean "employee." 

The masculine singular form of "Kollege" is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" at the end whenever it appears in a case other than nominative: "den Kollegen" (acc.), "dem Kollegen" (dat.), "des Kollegen" (gen.). See Grimm Grammar for details.

Alternate Forms:

die Kollegen (pl.), die Kollegin (fem. sing.), Kolleginnen (fem. pl.)
der Lebenslauf noun resumé, curriculum vitae (CV)

Details:

resumé, curriculum vitae (CV), lit. run of life

The literal meaning of this term ("run of life") fits well with the Latin "curriculum vitae," although German does not distinguish between a resumé and a CV in the way that English does. Instead, the term "Lebenslauf" is used for any kind of such document, although the "Lebenslauf" that a potential Employee creates is customized according to the relevant Field and Position. Click here or here for further examples.

The form of the German "Lebenslauf" differs in many specific ways from a resumé or CV. Most notably, the German version often contains a picture/portrait of the Employee applying for the Position so that the Employer has that information before the "Vorstellungsgespräch"("interview").

Example Sentences:

  1. Ein professionelles Porträtfoto im Lebenslauf hilft Bewerbern.
  2. Wenn Sie Ihre Tätigkeiten in Ihrem Lebenslauf auflisten, sollen Sie den richtigen Namen der Universität nutzen.
  3. Im Lebenslauf ist es hilfreich, die wichtigsten Tätigkeiten aufzuzählen.
  4. Bei Ingenieuren kann der Lebenslauf sehr lang werden.
  1. A professional portrait in a resumé helps applicants.
  2. If you list your activities in your resumé, you should use the correct name of the university.
  3. On a resumé, it is helpful to list the most important activities.
  4. For engineers, the resumé can get very long.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [in EMPLOYEEs Lebenslauf]
  1. [on EMPLOYEE'S CV]

Details:

resumé, curriculum vitae (CV), lit. run of life

The literal meaning of this term ("run of life") fits well with the Latin "curriculum vitae," although German does not distinguish between a resumé and a CV in the way that English does. Instead, the term "Lebenslauf" is used for any kind of such document, although the "Lebenslauf" that a potential Employee creates is customized according to the relevant Field and Position. Click here or here for further examples.

The form of the German "Lebenslauf" differs in many specific ways from a resumé or CV. Most notably, the German version often contains a picture/portrait of the Employee applying for the Position so that the Employer has that information before the "Vorstellungsgespräch"("interview").

Alternate Forms:

die Lebensläufe (pl.)
der Lohn noun pay, wage

Details:

pay, wage

This noun is used to to refer to what we would use "wage" for in English. It typically fills the role of Compensation, and can either be specific and refer to an hourly, weekly, or monthly amount, or it can be more general. It is not used to refer to a salary in the sense of an amount paid regularly and not based on legth of time worked, but rather in work produced.

This word is often used the compounds "Stundenlohn" ("hourly wage") and "Mindestlohn" ("minimum wage").

Example Sentences:

  1. Die meisten können von ihren niedrigen Löhnen nicht leben.
  2. Zimmerer und Maurer erhielten zumeist den gleichen Lohn.
  3. Das würde mehr Sicherheit und höhere Löhne bedeuten.
  4. Das Ziel des Streiks war die Verdoppelung des Mindestlohns.
  1. Most cannot live from their low wages.
  2. Carpenters and masons received in most cases the same wage.
  3. That would mean more security and higher wages.
  4. The goal of the strike was the doubling of the minimum wage.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Lohn]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's wage]

Details:

pay, wage

This noun is used to to refer to what we would use "wage" for in English. It typically fills the role of Compensation, and can either be specific and refer to an hourly, weekly, or monthly amount, or it can be more general. It is not used to refer to a salary in the sense of an amount paid regularly and not based on legth of time worked, but rather in work produced.

This word is often used the compounds "Stundenlohn" ("hourly wage") and "Mindestlohn" ("minimum wage").

Alternate Forms:

die Löhne (pl.)
der Mitarbeiter noun coworker, worker, employee

Details:

coworker, lit. with-worker

Although this term can be used similary to English "coworker,"its meaning is a bit wider. It is most often used as another term for "worker" or "employee."

Example Sentences:

  1. Er war 1959 bis 1972 Mitarbeiter an der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek Berlin.
  2. Er ist Mitarbeiter bei der Stiftung für Frieden.
  3. Diese Büros wurden von Michel Platini und seinen Mitarbeitern genutzt.
  1. He was from 1959 to 1972 a worker at the German State Library Berlin.
  2. He is an employee at the foundation for peace.
  3. These offices were used by Michel Platini and his coworkers.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYERs Mitarbeiter]
  2. EMPLOYEE ist Mitarbeiter an/bei EMPLOYER.
  3. [Mitarbeiter an EMPLOYER]
  4. [Mitarbeiter bei EMPLOYER]
  5. [EMPLOYEEs Mitarbeiter]
  1. [EMPLOYER's worker]
  2. EMPLOYEE is a worker at EMPLOYER.
  3. [coworker at EMPLOYER]
  4. [coworker at EMPLOYER]
  5. [EMPLOYEE's coworker]

Details:

coworker, lit. with-worker

Although this term can be used similary to English "coworker,"its meaning is a bit wider. It is most often used as another term for "worker" or "employee."

Alternate Forms:

die Mitarbeiter (pl.); die Mitarbeiterin (fem. sing.); die Mitarbeiterinnen (fem. pl.)
der Unternehmer noun entrepreneur

Details:

entrepreneur, business owner

This is not used quite the same as the term "entrepreneur" in American English. In American English, when "entrepreneuer" is used, the stress is on a sense of ingenuity, free spirit, know-how, and expertise. The term in German does not carry this meaning at all, but rather focuses on the managerial, technocratic element. It simply refers to someone who owns and manages an "Unternehmen" ("company"), similar to "der Chef" ("boss").

As with "der Chef" ("boss"), "der Unternehmer" ("entrepreneur") can be construed as an Employer (when an Employee is mentioned) or as an Employee (when the focus is on the entrepreneur as someone who works, paricularly if the Field is mentioned). Alternatively, this term may not represent a frame element at all. See the annotated examples.

Example Sentences:

  1. Überwachung führt oft zu Konflikten zwischen Unternehmern und ihren Angestellten.
  2. Carlos Slim Helú ist ein mexikanischer Unternehmer der Telekommunikationsbranche.
  3. Unternehmer der Berliner Startup-Industrie gründeten Frühphaseninvestor Cavalry Ventures.
  1. Surveillance leads often to conflicts between entrepreneurs and their employees.
  2. Carlo Slim Helú is a Mexican entreprenuer in telecommunications.
  3. Entrepreneurs in the Berlin startup industry founded the early stage investor Cavalry Ventures.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [Unternehmers EMPLOYEE]
  2. [Unternehmer FIELD.genitive]
  1. [entrepreneur's EMPLOYEE]
  2. [enterpreneuer in FIELD]

Details:

entrepreneur, business owner

This is not used quite the same as the term "entrepreneur" in American English. In American English, when "entrepreneuer" is used, the stress is on a sense of ingenuity, free spirit, know-how, and expertise. The term in German does not carry this meaning at all, but rather focuses on the managerial, technocratic element. It simply refers to someone who owns and manages an "Unternehmen" ("company"), similar to "der Chef" ("boss").

As with "der Chef" ("boss"), "der Unternehmer" ("entrepreneur") can be construed as an Employer (when an Employee is mentioned) or as an Employee (when the focus is on the entrepreneur as someone who works, paricularly if the Field is mentioned). Alternatively, this term may not represent a frame element at all. See the annotated examples.

Alternate Forms:

die Unternehmer (pl.), die Unternehmerin (fem. sing.), die Unternehmerinnen (fem. pl.)
der Vertrag noun contract

Details:

contract

This term refers to a document that specifies an agreement between two parties, just as the English word, but is broader in scope so that it encompasses treaties as well (which of course do not fall within the Work frame). One difference in use of English "contract" involves an Employer hiring someone to do a particular Task, e.g. "BASF got the contract to build the library;" in such cases, the term "Auftrag" is used ("BASF erhielt den Auftrag, die Bibliothek zu bauen"). See the entry for Auftrag for details.

 

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Vertrag läuft zwei Jahre.
  2. Schon vor dem Examen haben viele einen Vertrag in der Tasche.
  3. Der Vertrag galt für ein Jahr mit der Möglichkeit der Verlängerung.
  4. Möhlmann unterschrieb beim Tabellen-18. einen Vertrag bis Juni 2017.
  5. In zwei Jahren läuft dieser Vertrag hier auch aus, dann kann ich mir wieder was Neues suchen.
  6. Sein Vertrag als Intendant der Münchner Kammerspiele läuft nach fast zwei Dezennien endgültig aus.
  7. Kurz darauf nahm Bayer auch noch die Martinsrieder Morphosys AG unter Vertrag.
  8. Wenn es darauf besteht, dass ich bleibe, werde ich auf eine Klausel im Vertrag verweisen, die mir ein Rücktrittsrecht einräumt, falls ich meine künstlerischen Vorstellungen nicht mehr verwirklichen kann.
  1. The contract is for two years.
  2. Already befor the exam, many have a contract in their pocket.
  3. The contract was good for a year with the possibility of renewal.
  4. Möhlmann signed with Tabellen-18 a contract to June 2017.
  5. In two years, this contract here also expires, then I can find myself something new.
  6. His contract as director of the Münchner Kammerspiele is finally running out after almost two decades.
  7. Shortly thereafter Bayer took also yet the Martinsrieder Morphosys AG under contract.
  8. If it is insisted that I stay, I will refer to a clause in the contract, which grants me a right to withdraw, in case I can my artistic ideas no longer realize.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE unterschreibt einen Vertrag.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Vertrag]
  1. EMPLOYEE signs a contract.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's contract]

Details:

contract

This term refers to a document that specifies an agreement between two parties, just as the English word, but is broader in scope so that it encompasses treaties as well (which of course do not fall within the Work frame). One difference in use of English "contract" involves an Employer hiring someone to do a particular Task, e.g. "BASF got the contract to build the library;" in such cases, the term "Auftrag" is used ("BASF erhielt den Auftrag, die Bibliothek zu bauen"). See the entry for Auftrag for details.

 

Alternate Forms:

die Verträge (pl.)
der/die Angestellte noun employee

Details:

employee

This term is quite close to its English equivalent, and refers to any Employee of an Employer. It is most specifically used in refererence to white-collar workers. The term for a blue-collar worker would be "Arbeiter" ("worker," "laborer").

Because this noun is derived from an adjective, it gets different endings depending on the case. See the grammar note.

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Angestellte verdient 2.700 Euro netto im Monat.
  2. Sie sprach mit einem ehemaligen Angestellten der Düsseldorfer Security-GmbH.
  3. Das sagte Theodoros Ioannides, ein Angestellter einer Pharmaindustrie.
  4. Ein Angestellter des Kernkraftunternehmens nahm sich das Leben.
  1. The employee earns 2,700 Euros net per month.
  2. She spoke with a former employee of Düsseldorf's Security-GmbH.
  3. Theodoros Ioannides, an employee of the pharma industry, said that.
  4. An employee of the nuclear energy company took his own life.

Grammar:

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [der Angestellte EMPLOYER.genitive]
  2. [der Angestellte FIELD.genitive]
  1. [employee of EMPLOYER]
  2. [employee in FIELD]

Details:

employee

This term is quite close to its English equivalent, and refers to any Employee of an Employer. It is most specifically used in refererence to white-collar workers. The term for a blue-collar worker would be "Arbeiter" ("worker," "laborer").

Because this noun is derived from an adjective, it gets different endings depending on the case. See the grammar note.

Alternate Forms:

die Angestellten (pl.)
der/die Vorgesetzte noun supervisor, superior

Details:

supervisor, superior

This term is used for anyone with more authority than an Employee in a company. Usually, it is not the ultimate boss, but someone more directly in control of the Employee (as in English). In this sense, it can also refer to any "superior" rather a direct supervisor.

As a noun that is derived from an adjective, this term gets different endings in different contexts. See the grammar note.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Vorgesetzter in meiner Firma unterstützt mich.
  2. Sie heiratete ihren Vorgesetzten.
  3. Sinnvoll ist hier, wenn ein Vorgesetzter seinem Mitarbeiter die Grenze aufzeigt.
  4. Sie können mit Ihren Vorgesetzten höhere Gehälter aushandeln.
  1. My supervisor in my company supports me.
  2. She married her supervisor.
  3. It is sensible here, when a supervisor shows his employees the limit.
  4. You can negotiate higher salaries with your supervisor.

Grammar:

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Vorgesetzter]
  2. [der Vorgesetztes EMPLOYEE]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's supervisor]
  2. [supervisor's EMPLOYEE]

Details:

supervisor, superior

This term is used for anyone with more authority than an Employee in a company. Usually, it is not the ultimate boss, but someone more directly in control of the Employee (as in English). In this sense, it can also refer to any "superior" rather a direct supervisor.

As a noun that is derived from an adjective, this term gets different endings in different contexts. See the grammar note.

Alternate Forms:

die Vorgesetzten (pl.)
die Arbeit noun work

Details:

work

This can be used in the same way as the English counterpart, but, like the term "der Arbeiter" ("the worker"), it can also refer specifically to manual labor. In contrast to English, the word "Arbeit" can be used with "eine" to indicate a job, so "sie sucht Arbeit" means "she's looking for work," while "sie sucht eine Arbeit" means "she's looking for a job."

"Arbeit" is commonly used in conjunction with verbs like "suchen" ("to look for"), "finden" ("to find"), "annehmen" ("to accept"), or "machen" ("to do"). To indicate that someone is "at" work, the phrase "an der Arbeit" is used. When expressing going "to" work, use either the preposition "zu" ("to") or "an" ("to"), as in: "ich gehe zur Arbeit" or "ich gehe an die Arbeit" ("I'm going to work").

Example Sentences:

  1. Die junge Frau sprach von ihrer Arbeit als Journalistin.
  2. Er konnte keine Arbeit in seinem Beruf finden.
  3. Er hat von seiner Arbeit bei Germanwings erzählt.
  4. Aber die Arbeit in der Landwirtschaft ist wesentlich produktiver.
  5. Das war seine Art zu zeigen, dass er seine Arbeit für seine Kinder machte.
  6. Eine Arbeit als Trainer hatte Klose als eine Option für die Zeit nach der aktiven Spielerkarriere genannt.
  7. Und wenn ein Flüchtling eine Arbeit hat, ist das schön.
  8. Jede Arbeit ist ihres Lohnes wert.
  1. The young woman spoke of her work as a journalist.
  2. He could find no work in his profession.
  3. He told of his work at German Wings.
  4. But work in agriculture is substantially more productive.
  5. That was his way to show that he did his work for his children.
  6. A job as trainer Klose had mentioned as an option for the time after the active player career.
  7. And when a refugee has a job, that is nice.
  8. Every work is worth its wage.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE sucht/findet eine Arbeit.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Arbeit]
  3. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER]
  4. [Arbeit als POSITION]
  5. [Arbeit in FIELD]
  6. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER als POSITION]
  7. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [Arbeit in FIELD als POSITION]
  9. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER in FIELD als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE looks for/finds work.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's work]
  3. [work at EMPLOYER]
  4. [work as POSITION]
  5. [work in FIELD]
  6. [work at EMPLOYER as POSITION]
  7. [work at EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [work in FIELD as POSITION]
  9. [work at EMPLOYER in FIELD as POSITION]

Details:

work

This can be used in the same way as the English counterpart, but, like the term "der Arbeiter" ("the worker"), it can also refer specifically to manual labor. In contrast to English, the word "Arbeit" can be used with "eine" to indicate a job, so "sie sucht Arbeit" means "she's looking for work," while "sie sucht eine Arbeit" means "she's looking for a job."

"Arbeit" is commonly used in conjunction with verbs like "suchen" ("to look for"), "finden" ("to find"), "annehmen" ("to accept"), or "machen" ("to do"). To indicate that someone is "at" work, the phrase "an der Arbeit" is used. When expressing going "to" work, use either the preposition "zu" ("to") or "an" ("to"), as in: "ich gehe zur Arbeit" or "ich gehe an die Arbeit" ("I'm going to work").

die Arbeitslosigkeit noun unemployment

Details:

unemployment

This is used the same as its English counterpart. Note that the term "unemployment rate" is rendered in German not with this word but instead with the noun form "Arbeitslose" ("unemployed person") built from the adjective "arbeitslos" ("unemployed;" see the grammar note). For example, "Die Arbeitslosenrate in Deutschland ist auf ein Rekordtief gesunken." ("The unemployment rate in Germany has sunk to a record low.")

To express the concept of unemployment in a particular profession (Field) or for a particular group of people, the preposition "unter" ("among," "under") is used. In such cases, the Field is realized with words that refer to people  (e.g. "Ingenieure" ("engineers"), "Jugendlichen" ("youths"), etc.).

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Arbeitslosigkeit im Iran ist im Frühjahr gestiegen.
  2. Die Arbeitslosigkeit fiel im September um 0,1 Punkte auf 3 Prozent.
  3. Weniger Arbeitslosigkeit führt laut einer Studie nicht zu sinkendem Armutsrisiko.
  4. Die Arbeitslosigkeit unter Akademikern ist traditionell niedrig.
  1. The unemployment in Iran rose in the spring.
  2. The unemployment fell in September by 0.1 percent to 3 percent.
  3. Less unemployment leads, according to a study, not to sinking poverty risk.
  4. The unemployment among academics is traditionally low.

Grammar:

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Die Arbeitslosigkeit unter FIELD ist hoch/niedrig.
  1. The unemployment among FIELD is high/low.

Details:

unemployment

This is used the same as its English counterpart. Note that the term "unemployment rate" is rendered in German not with this word but instead with the noun form "Arbeitslose" ("unemployed person") built from the adjective "arbeitslos" ("unemployed;" see the grammar note). For example, "Die Arbeitslosenrate in Deutschland ist auf ein Rekordtief gesunken." ("The unemployment rate in Germany has sunk to a record low.")

To express the concept of unemployment in a particular profession (Field) or for a particular group of people, the preposition "unter" ("among," "under") is used. In such cases, the Field is realized with words that refer to people  (e.g. "Ingenieure" ("engineers"), "Jugendlichen" ("youths"), etc.).

die Arbeitsstelle noun position

Details:

position, lit. work position

This term is used similarly to its English counterpart. It is similar to "der Job" ("the job") and follows similar sentence templates. If there is a distinction, it is that "Arbeitsstelle" is somewhat more tangible and specific than "Job," which can be used more abstractly.

Example Sentences:

  1. Es gibt angenehme Arbeitsstellen im öffentlichen Sektor.
  2. Er verlor immer wieder seine Arbeitsstelle.
  3. Eine Arbeitsstelle als Fahrer oder Kellner wäre ein Riesenschritt vorwärts.
  4. Der junge Mann erzählt von seiner neuen Arbeitsstelle als Wächter in einem Hotel.
  1. There are comfortable positions in the public sector.
  2. He lost ever again his position.
  3. A position as a driver or server would be a giant step forward.
  4. The young man tells of his new position as a watchman in a hotel.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE hat/findet eine Arbeitsstelle.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Arbeitsstelle]
  3. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER]
  4. [Arbeitsstelle als POSITION]
  5. [Arbeitsstelle in FIELD]
  6. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER als POSITION]
  7. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [Arbeitsstelle in FIELD als POSITION]
  9. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER in FIELD als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE has/finds a position.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's position]
  3. [position at EMPLOYER]
  4. [position as POSITION]
  5. [position in FIELD]
  6. [position at EMPLOYER as POSITION]
  7. [position at EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [position in FIELD as POSITION]
  9. [position at EMPLOYER in FIELD as POSITION]

Details:

position, lit. work position

This term is used similarly to its English counterpart. It is similar to "der Job" ("the job") and follows similar sentence templates. If there is a distinction, it is that "Arbeitsstelle" is somewhat more tangible and specific than "Job," which can be used more abstractly.

Alternate Forms:

die Arbeitsstellen (pl.)
die Beförderung noun promotion

Details:

promotion

This is used as in English.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach seiner Beförderung zum Chefcoach verdiente er mehr Geld.
  2. Der Verein gab die Beförderung des Jugendkoordinators am Mittwoch bekannt.
  3. Vor ihrer Beförderung ins Kabinett von US-Präsident Barack Obama arbeitete Loretta Lynch als Bundesanwältin in New York.
  1. After his promotion to head coach, he earned more money.
  2. The club announced the promotion of the youth coordinator on Wednesday.
  3. Before her promotion into the cabinet of US President Barack Obama, Loretta Lynch worked as a federal prosecutor in New York.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Beförderung zu POSITION
  2. EMPLOYEEs Beförderung
  3. Beförderung EMPLOYEE.genitive
  1. promotion to POSITION
  2. EMPLOYEE's Beförderung
  3. Beförderung of EMPLOYEE

Details:

promotion

This is used as in English.

Alternate Forms:

die Beförderungen (pl.)
die Karriere noun career

Details:

career

This is used similary to its English counterpart. It refers to the employment path that an Employee follows in life, usually within one Field, often as one Position or a related set of Positions, sometimes for one Employer.

Example Sentences:

  1. Er konnte seine Karriere fortsetzen.
  2. Größter Erfolg seiner Karriere war Olympiasilber mit der Mannschaft 2010 in Vancouver.
  3. Junge Menschen streben nach Karrieren in den Naturwissenschaften.
  4. Auch nach seiner erfolgreichen Karriere als Spieler arbeitete Baur jahrelang beim DHB.
  1. He was able to continue his career.
  2. The biggest success of his career was Olympic silver with the team in 2010 in Vancouver.
  3. Young people aspire to careers in the natural sciences.
  4. Also after his successful career as a player, Baur worked for years at DHB.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE hat eine Karriere.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Karriere]
  3. [EMPLOYEE.possessive Karriere in FIELD]
  4. [Karriere in FIELD]
  5. [Karriere als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE has a career.
  2. [EYMPLOEE's career]
  3. [EMPLOYEE's career in FIELD]
  4. [career in FIELD]
  5. [career as POSITION]

Details:

career

This is used similary to its English counterpart. It refers to the employment path that an Employee follows in life, usually within one Field, often as one Position or a related set of Positions, sometimes for one Employer.

Alternate Forms:

die Karrieren (pl.)
die Stellenanzeige noun job ad

Details:

job ad

The "Stellenanzeige" corresponds well to its English counterpart. It usually includes information on the Position, Field, and the needs for completing Tasks associated with the Position. There may be brief information about the Employer as well as the qualities desired in an Employee. Finally, there may be direct or indirect reference to the Compensation that will be offered.

Example Sentences:

  1. Dann las er die Stellenanzeige vom Radelmeister.
  2. So viele Menschen wie nie zuvor haben sich auf eine Stellenanzeige der Nasa hin als Astronauten beworben.
  3. Nur jedes zehnte Unternehmen nutzt dynamische Elemente in seinen Stellenanzeigen.
  4. Viele Unternehmen formulieren in ihren Stellenanzeigen extrem hohe Anforderungen.
  5. Viele Stellenanzeigen listen Aufgaben und Anforderungen hinter Spiegelstrichen auf.
  1. Then he read the job ad from Radelmeister.
  2. So many people as never before have responded to the job ad from Nasa for astronaut.
  3. Only every tenth company uses dynamic elements in its job ads.
  4. Many companies state extremely high needs in their job ads.
  5. Many job ads list tasks and requirements behind bullet points.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE liest eine Stellenanzeige.
  2. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf eine Stellenanzeige von EMPLOYER.
  3. [EMPLOYERs Stellenanzeige]
  1. EMPLOYEE reads a job ad.
  2. EMPLOYEE responds to a job ad from EMPLOYER.
  3. [EMPLOYER's job ad]

Details:

job ad

The "Stellenanzeige" corresponds well to its English counterpart. It usually includes information on the Position, Field, and the needs for completing Tasks associated with the Position. There may be brief information about the Employer as well as the qualities desired in an Employee. Finally, there may be direct or indirect reference to the Compensation that will be offered.

Alternate Forms:

die Stellenanzeigen (pl.)
einstellen verb to hire

Details:

to hire

This separable prefix verb functions and shares meaning with the "hire" sense of "anstellen." It thus only refers to the beginning of employment (in contrast to "anstellen;" see that entry for more information). This verb is often used in passive voice (see sentence template 3, example 3 and this explanation of passive from Grimm Grammar).

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie stellte ihn als Volontär bei der Sparkasse ein.
  2. Ich glaube, ich würde eher eine Türkin einstellen.
  3. Im Mai wurde er als Trompeter im 1. Artillerieregimente eingestellt.
  4. Seebeck müßte 62 Verwaltungsangestellte entlassen und 64 Arbeiter einstellen.
  1. She hired him as a volunteer at the savings bank.
  2. I think I would rather hire a Turkish woman.
  3. In May, he was hired as a trumpeter in the First Artillery Regiment.
  4. Seebeck had to fire 62 administrators and hire 64 workers.

Grammar:

Verbs with Separable Prefixes

Some verbs have a prefix that moves around in the sentence, depending on what form the verb takes. In the infinitive form, the prefix is attached, like "ausgehen" (to go out). If the verb is conjugated (in present or simple past tense), the prefix appears at the end of the clause, as in "Ich gehe heute Abend aus." For more information about these verbs, see the examples for individual verbs or read these explanations from Grimm Grammar: present tense, conversational past tense (Perfekt).

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE ein.
  2. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE als POSITION ein.
  3. EMPLOYEE wird als POSITION eingestellt.
  1. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE as POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE is hired as POSITION.

Details:

to hire

This separable prefix verb functions and shares meaning with the "hire" sense of "anstellen." It thus only refers to the beginning of employment (in contrast to "anstellen;" see that entry for more information). This verb is often used in passive voice (see sentence template 3, example 3 and this explanation of passive from Grimm Grammar).

Alternate Forms:

(er) stellt ein, hat eingestellt, stellte ein
entlassen verb to fire, to let go

Details:

to fire, to let go

This verb is often used with passive voice, regularly lacking the Employer who did the firing (see sentence templates 2-3, examples 2-3, and this explanation for details).

Unlike in English, German does not represent the difference between to fire and to lay off with different verbs. Therefore, the distinction must be understood through context or with other sentence elements.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Vizedirektorin kam und sagte mir, dass sie mich entlassen müsste.
  2. Er verdiente nur dreißig Mark die Woche, und wurde wegen Arbeitsmangels entlassen.
  3. Die muslimische Rezeptionistin wurde entlassen, weil sie während der Arbeit ein Kopftuch tragen wollte.
  4. Seebeck müßte 62 Verwaltungsangestellte entlassen und 64 Arbeiter einstellen.
  1. The vice director came and told me that she had to fire me.
  2. He earned only thirty marks per week and was laid off due to shortage of work.
  3. The Muslim receptionist was fired, because she wanted to wear during work a headscarf.
  4. Seebeck had to fire 62 administrators and hire 64 workers.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER entlässt EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYEE wird entlassen.
  3. EMPLOYEE wird von EMPLOYER entlassen.
  1. EMPLOYER fires EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYEE gets fired.
  3. EMPLOYEE gets fired by EMPLOYER.

Details:

to fire, to let go

This verb is often used with passive voice, regularly lacking the Employer who did the firing (see sentence templates 2-3, examples 2-3, and this explanation for details).

Unlike in English, German does not represent the difference between to fire and to lay off with different verbs. Therefore, the distinction must be understood through context or with other sentence elements.

Alternate Forms:

er entlässt, hat entlassen, entließ
in Rente gehen multi-word expression to go into retirement, to retire

Details:

to go into retirement, to retire

This phrase is used to refer to a person retiring at retirement age.

Extending beyond the Work frame, it can be used to talk about someone stopping a meaningful activity after a long time, e.g., "in Sachen Filmemachen in Rente gehen" ("to retire from making movies"). Unlike in English though, it cannot be used with a direct object, as in "to retire that outfit." For that figurative meaning, use "etwas in Rente schicken" ("to send something into retirement").

Example Sentences:

  1. Johann geht mit 65 in Rente.
  2. Arbeitnehmer können ab 63 Jahren in Rente gehen, wenn sie 45 Jahre gearbeitet haben.
  3. In Rente will der 59-jährige Däne aber noch nicht gehen.
  4. Es ist unklar, wann der Rentner in Rente gegangen ist.
  1. Johann is going into retirement at 65.
  2. Workers can retire at 63 with if they have worked 45 years.
  3. But the 59 year-old Dane did not yet want to retire.
  4. It is unclear when the retiree retired.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE geht in Rente.
  1. EMPLOYEE retires.

Details:

to go into retirement, to retire

This phrase is used to refer to a person retiring at retirement age.

Extending beyond the Work frame, it can be used to talk about someone stopping a meaningful activity after a long time, e.g., "in Sachen Filmemachen in Rente gehen" ("to retire from making movies"). Unlike in English though, it cannot be used with a direct object, as in "to retire that outfit." For that figurative meaning, use "etwas in Rente schicken" ("to send something into retirement").

Alternate Forms:

(er) geht in Rente, ist in Rente gegangen, ging in Rente
jobben verb to work, to moonlight, to temp

Details:

to work, to moonlight, to temp

This verb is used to refer to work that is in any way different from the standard 9-5 work an Employee will do as a career. It can refer to moonlighting, to working seasonally, to doing odd jobs, to temping, etc. It is not work that is part of or leads to a "Beruf" or a "Karriere."

Example Sentences:

  1. Nebenbei jobbt Fritz als Model.
  2. In den nächsten zwei Monaten jobbten wir als Fischschuppenabkratzer.
  3. Danach jobbte der 24-jährige bei einer Marketingfirma in Kairo.
  4. Sie macht eine Ausbildung zur Bürokauffrau und jobbt nebenher als Kellnerin.
  5. Ich hätte dann bei einem Callcenter für 11,80 Euro brutto die Stunde gejobbt.
  6. Derweil jobbt er zwanzig Stunden in der Woche als Altenpfleger.
  7. In den Ferien hat er in der Fabrik gejobbt.
  8. In den Ferien habe ich manchmal als Schwesternhelferin im Krankenhaus gejobbt.
  9. Außerdem jobbe ich in einem Restaurant als Empfangsdame.
  1. On the side, Fritz works as a model.
  2. In the next two months, we worked as fish descalers.
  3. After that, the 24 year-old worked at a marketing firm in Cairo.
  4. She is doing a training as an office clerk and is working on the side as a waitress.
  5. I would have worked then at a call center for 11.80 Euros gross per hour.
  6. Meanwhile, he works twenty hours a week as a geriatric nurse.
  7. During the break, he worked in the factory.
  8. During the break, I sometimes worked as nurse's assistant in the hospital.
  9. Besides that, I work in a restaurant as hostess.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE jobbt.
  2. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE jobbt als POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE jobbt für COMPENSATION.
  5. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER für COMPENSATION.
  8. EMPLOYEE jobbt als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  1. EMPLOYEE works.
  2. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE works for COMPENSATION.
  5. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION for COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER for COMPENSATION.
  8. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION for COMPENSATION.

Details:

to work, to moonlight, to temp

This verb is used to refer to work that is in any way different from the standard 9-5 work an Employee will do as a career. It can refer to moonlighting, to working seasonally, to doing odd jobs, to temping, etc. It is not work that is part of or leads to a "Beruf" or a "Karriere."

Alternate Forms:

(er) jobbt, hat gejobbt, jobbte
pensioniert adjective retired

Details:

retired

This adjective is used just as in English. Its form is identical to the past participle of the transitive verb "pensionieren" ("to pension [someone]", "to retire [someone]"); see the grammar note Making Adjectives from Verbs for details on how this works.

Example Sentences:

  1. Heute ist er pensioniert.
  2. Der pensionierte Allgemeinarzt kommt aus Köthen in Sachsen-Anhalt.
  3. Seither sind die Tage des pensionierten Professors stiller geworden.
  4. Der pensionierte Neurochirurg Ben Carson hielt eine Rede.
  1. Today he is retired.
  2. The retired general doctor comes from Köthen in Sachsen-Anhalt.
  3. Since then, the days of the retired professors have become more peaceful.
  4. The retired neurosurgeon Ben Carson is giving a speech.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Making Adjectives from Verbs

In German (just as in English), the past participles of verbs (with the -ed ending in English) can be used as adjectives, known as "participial adjectives." Add an adjective ending when appropriate. Even a verb's present participle can be used as an adjective. This form of the verb is similar in meaning to English ing-forms, and is formed in German by adding a "d" (and an adjective ending, if necessary) to the infinitive form of the verb. Adjectives formed in this way apply to the type of frame element that would fill the subject role of the verb (e.g. überraschend applies to a Stimulus, and  ).

Example: enttäuschen, überraschen (normal use as verbs)

     Jens enttäuscht seine Mutter. (Jens disappoints his mother.)

     Das Ende der Geschichte überrascht Lena. (The end of the story surprises Lena.)

Adjectives from Past Participles: 

Example: enttäuschen (to disappoint) > enttäuscht

     Seine Mutter war enttäuscht, dass er bei der Prüfung durchgefallen ist. (His mother was disappointed that he failed the test.)

     Die enttäuschte Mutter weint. (The disappointed mother cries.)

The way frame elements are realized with the verb determine what the adjective can be used to describe. Details are given in the table below.

Subject of VerbDirect ObjectAdjective applies to:Examples
StimulusExperiencerExperienceraufgeregt (worked up), schockiert (shocked), enttäuscht (disappointed)
Experiencer

Content or Stimulus

Content or Stimulus

gefürchtet (feared), gehasst (hated), geliebt (loved)

*Note that this is not the same as passive voice, which also uses a past participle. See Grimm Grammar for infomation about passive.

Adjectives from Present Participles:

Example: überraschen > überraschend (surprising)

     Das Ende der Geschichte war überraschend. (The end of the story was surprising.)

     Das war ein überraschendes Ende. (That was a surprising ending.)

 

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE ist pensioniert.
  2. [pensioniert- EMPLOYEE]
  3. [pensioniert- POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE is retired.
  2. [retired EMPLOYEE]
  3. [retired POSITION]

Details:

retired

This adjective is used just as in English. Its form is identical to the past participle of the transitive verb "pensionieren" ("to pension [someone]", "to retire [someone]"); see the grammar note Making Adjectives from Verbs for details on how this works.

sich bewerben (um/auf + akk.) verb to apply (for)

Details:

to apply (for)

This verb is used with an accusative reflexive pronoun, as well as with the prepositions "um" or "auf" with the accusative. The meanings of the two prepositions are more or less identical, however, the former, "um," is far more common than the latter, "auf." The verb indicates an Employee who is applying for a Position. There is often more information regarding the Field in which the Position exists, indicated by the preposition "in" (dative), or the Employer offering the Position, usually indicated by the preposition "bei" (also dative).

When used with "Anzeige" to express that the potential Employee is applying to a job from an ad, this verb is used with the phrase "sich auf eine Anzeige bewerben" in a way that is not possible in English: "to apply to an ad." In such expressions, the Position can be expressed as a phrase with "als," as in "ich bewerbe mich auf die Anzeige als Kellner" ("I'm applying to the ad for a server"). See examples 5 and 6.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie bewerben sich um einen guten Job.
  2. Die Ehrgeizigen bewerben sich um die Ämter, die käuflich geworden sind.
  3. Er hat sich auf eine Professur für Geschichte beworben.
  4. Sie bewarb sich auf eine Stelle bei der Firma.
  5. Ich werde mich nicht auf die Anzeige als Hilfsarbeiter bewerben!
  6. "Nicht selten bewerben sich 800 Jobsuchende auf eine Anzeige", schätzt Leitner.
  1. You are applying for a good job.
  2. The ambitious people apply for the offices that have become corrupt.
  3. He applied for a professorship in history.
  4. She applied for a job at the company.
  5. I will not to the ad for labourer apply!
  6. "Not rarely, 800 job-seekers apply to one ad", estimates Leitner.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION.accusative.
  2. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative.
  3. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION in FIELD.dative.
  4. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION bei EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER.
  6. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative in FIELD.dative.
  7. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative bei EMPLOYER.
  8. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER.
  1. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION.
  2. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD.
  4. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION at EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD at EMPLOYER.
  6. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD.
  7. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION at EMPLOYER.
  8. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD at EMPLOYER.

Details:

to apply (for)

This verb is used with an accusative reflexive pronoun, as well as with the prepositions "um" or "auf" with the accusative. The meanings of the two prepositions are more or less identical, however, the former, "um," is far more common than the latter, "auf." The verb indicates an Employee who is applying for a Position. There is often more information regarding the Field in which the Position exists, indicated by the preposition "in" (dative), or the Employer offering the Position, usually indicated by the preposition "bei" (also dative).

When used with "Anzeige" to express that the potential Employee is applying to a job from an ad, this verb is used with the phrase "sich auf eine Anzeige bewerben" in a way that is not possible in English: "to apply to an ad." In such expressions, the Position can be expressed as a phrase with "als," as in "ich bewerbe mich auf die Anzeige als Kellner" ("I'm applying to the ad for a server"). See examples 5 and 6.

Alternate Forms:

(er) bewirbt sich um/auf ..., hat sich um/auf ... beworben, bewarb sich um/auf ...
verdienen verb to earn

Details:

to earn

This verb is relatively narrowly confined to referring to an Employee who earns Compensation. The Compensation is often stated quite directly. Sometimes, however, the Compensation is described with an adverb like "gut" ("well") or some sort of comparative construction like "mehr als" ("more than"). Occasionally, the subject of "verdienen" can be a company, which can fill the Employer role, or in a general way, one might mention what people in a particular Position earn (see the examples).

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Angestellte verdient 2.700 Euro netto im Monat.
  2. Was verdient der Pilot?
  3. Die Mutter verdiente ihren Unterhalt als Wäscherin.
  4. Die Harvard-MBAs verdienten weniger.
  5. Sie hat ihr Geld mit Geschäften auf eBay verdient.
  6. Der Konzern verdiente zwischen Juli und September rund 61 Millionen Euro.
  7. Nach der Ausbildung verdienen Pferdewirte zwischen 1.400 bis 1.800 Euro brutto im Monat.
  1. The employee earns 2,700 Euros net per month.
  2. What does the pilot earn?
  3. The mother earned her living as a laundry woman.
  4. The Harvard MBAs earned less.
  5. She earned her money with businesses on eBay.
  6. The corporation earned between July and September around 61 million Euros.
  7. After the training, horse-grooms earn between 1,400 to 1,800 Euros gross per month.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE verdient COMPENSATION.
  2. EMPLOYEE verdient (gut/mehr).
  1. EMPLOYEE earns COMPENSATION.
  2. EMPLOYEE earns (well/more).

Details:

to earn

This verb is relatively narrowly confined to referring to an Employee who earns Compensation. The Compensation is often stated quite directly. Sometimes, however, the Compensation is described with an adverb like "gut" ("well") or some sort of comparative construction like "mehr als" ("more than"). Occasionally, the subject of "verdienen" can be a company, which can fill the Employer role, or in a general way, one might mention what people in a particular Position earn (see the examples).

Alternate Forms:

(er) verdient, hat verdient, verdiente
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
(einen Job) annehmen multi-word expression to accept (a job)

Details:

to take (a job), to accept (a job)

This multi-word expression includes the separable verb "annehmen" and any one of a variety of terms similar to "der Job," including, but not limited to "die Stelle" ("the position"), "die Arbeit" ("the work"), "die Beschäftigung" ("the occupation, employment") and "die Aufgabe" ("the task"). Don't forget to put the "job"-word in the accusative case!

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Fotografin nimmt einen Job in einem Verlag an.
  2. Er wollte die Stelle bei der Frankfurter Zeitung annehmen.
  3. Damals hat mein Kompagnon eine Stelle als Lehrer angenommen.
  4. Es war eine gute Idee, den Job anzunehmen.
  5. Sie nahm den Job als Modechefin der Frauenzeitschrift Cover in Kopenhagen an.
  1. The photographer is taking a job in a publishing house.
  2. He wanted to take the position at the Frankfurter Zeitung.
  3. Back then, my partner took a position as a teacher.
  4. It was a good idea to take the job.
  5. She accepted the job as fashion manager of the women's magazine Cover in Copenhagen.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job an.
  2. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job als POSITION an.
  3. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job bei EMPLOYER an.
  4. EMPLOYEE nimmt einen Job bei EMPLOYER als POSITION an.
  1. EMPLOYEE accepts a job.
  2. EMPLOYEE accepts a job as POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE accepts a job at EMPLOYER.
  4. EMPLOYEE accepts a job at EMPLOYER as POSITION.

Details:

to take (a job), to accept (a job)

This multi-word expression includes the separable verb "annehmen" and any one of a variety of terms similar to "der Job," including, but not limited to "die Stelle" ("the position"), "die Arbeit" ("the work"), "die Beschäftigung" ("the occupation, employment") and "die Aufgabe" ("the task"). Don't forget to put the "job"-word in the accusative case!

Alternate Forms:

(er) nimmt (einen Job) an, hat (einen Job) angenommen, nahm (einen Job) an
(einen Job) kündigen multi-word expression to quit (a job), to terminate

Details:

to quit (a job), to terminate employment, to terminate (a contract, an employee)

The verb "kündigen" can be used with a noun in the accusative case to convey the meaning that the Employee is quitting a job, terminating their employment. To include the effective date of the termination of employment, use the preposition "zu," for example: "Ich kündige zu dem 1.Oktober" ("effective October 1").

It is also possible to use this verb from the Employer's perspective to mean "to terminate employment" or with the same meaning as "entlassen" ("to fire"). When the Employer is the subject of the verb, the Employee appears as the dative object, as in "dem Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). In casual spoken language and in Austria, the Employee may appear in accusative instead, as in "den Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). 

In the "entlassen" ("to fire") sense, "kündigen" is usually used in the passive voice, such as "ihnen werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired") or in spoken language, "sie werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired").

Note that this versatile verb can also be used in other frames to describe terminating a variety of contracts, such as rental agreements, or credit.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich kündige meine Stelle.
  2. Sabine will zum 10. April bei der Pharmafirma kündigen.
  3. Sie hatte wegen Probleme mit dem Vorgesetzten ihren Job gekündigt.
  4. Sie wurden gestern gekündigt?
  5. 200-Kilo-Mann wird gekündigt, weil er zu dick ist.
  6. Darf einer Angestellten gekündigt werden, weil sie ihr Kopftuch nicht ablegen will?
  7. Unternehmen kündigen ihren Angestellten und lassen sie nur noch als Selbstständige arbeiten.
  8. Aber in den USA preschte der Kopiererfabrikant Xerox jüngst abschreckend vor und kündigte 40 allzu netzpräsenten Angestellten.
  1. I am quitting my job.
  2. Sabine wants effective April 10 to quit the pharmaceutical company.
  3. She had because of problems with her boss quit her job.
  4. You got fired yesterday?
  5. 200 kilo man gets fired because he is too fat.
  6. May an employee (female) be fired, because she doesn't want to remove her head-covering?
  7. Businesses terminate their employees and let them work only still as independent contractors.
  8. But in the USA surged the copy-machine-maker Xerox newly deterringly ahead, and terminated 40 all too internet-present employees.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE kündigt.
  2. EMPLOYEE kündigt einen Job.
  3. EMPLOYEE kündigt POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE kündigt bei EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYER kündigt EMPLOYEE.dative.
  6. EMPLOYEE wird gekündigt.
  7. EMPLOYEE wird von EMPLOYER gekündigt.
  1. EMPLOYEE quits.
  2. EMPLOYEE quits a job.
  3. EMPLOYEE quits POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE terminates employment at EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYER terminates EMPLOYEE.
  6. EMPLOYEE gets fired.
  7. EMPLOYEE is fired by EMPLOYER.

Details:

to quit (a job), to terminate employment, to terminate (a contract, an employee)

The verb "kündigen" can be used with a noun in the accusative case to convey the meaning that the Employee is quitting a job, terminating their employment. To include the effective date of the termination of employment, use the preposition "zu," for example: "Ich kündige zu dem 1.Oktober" ("effective October 1").

It is also possible to use this verb from the Employer's perspective to mean "to terminate employment" or with the same meaning as "entlassen" ("to fire"). When the Employer is the subject of the verb, the Employee appears as the dative object, as in "dem Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). In casual spoken language and in Austria, the Employee may appear in accusative instead, as in "den Mann kündigen" ("to fire the man"). 

In the "entlassen" ("to fire") sense, "kündigen" is usually used in the passive voice, such as "ihnen werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired") or in spoken language, "sie werden gekündigt" ("they are getting fired").

Note that this versatile verb can also be used in other frames to describe terminating a variety of contracts, such as rental agreements, or credit.

Alternate Forms:

(er) kündigt (einen Job), hat (einen Job) gekündigt, kündigte (einen Job)
anstellen verb to hire, to employ

Details:

to hire, to employ

Used like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Firma stellt jeden Oktober 20 Kassierer an.
  2. Mitglieder der Missions-Gesellschaft stellten ihn als Prediger an.
  3. Inzwischen mußte die Fabrik acht zusätzliche Arbeiter anstellen, um die Arbeitslast bewältigen zu können.
  4. VW hatte erwogen, Arbeiter in einer Tochterfirma anzustellen und niedriger zu bezahlen.
  1. The firm hires every October 20 cashiers.
  2. Members of the mission society hired him as a preacher.
  3. Meanwhile, the factory had to hire eight additional workers, in order to be able to handle the workload.
  4. VW had considered hiring workers in a subsidiary company and paying them less.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE an.
  2. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE als POSITION an.
  1. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE as POSITION.

Details:

to hire, to employ

Used like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

(er) stellt an, hat angestellt, stellte an
Arbeit suchen multi-word expression to look for work

Details:

to look for work

This construction focuses on the actions of an Employee looking for employment. It is most general when the word "Arbeit" ("work") is used without an article. When used with an article, such as "eine Arbeit," ("a job") the focus is often on the type of employment, i.e. on the Position desired. However, without an article, the Position can be indicated following the preposition "als." When the Employer offering the Position is expressed, it is introduced by the preposition "bei" ("at), as in: "Gustav sucht Arbeit bei Siemens als Programmierer" ("Gustav is looking for work at Siemens as a programmer"). Finally, when the Field is indicated, the preposition in is used with the dative case (e.g. "
er sucht Arbeit im Finanzsektor," "he is looking for work in the financial sector").

Note that this verb is sometimes used with a reflexive pronoun (in dative). This adds a meaning like "for myself" in a sentence such as "ich begann mir Arbeit zu suchen," ("I started looking for work for myself").

Example Sentences:

  1. Er ist wieder auf deutschem Boden und sucht in Stuttgart Arbeit.
  2. Ich werde mir eine Arbeit suchen, die mir gefällt.
  3. Wir haben Arbeit in Landwirtschaft gesucht.
  4. Dann sucht er Arbeit bei Daimler.
  5. Sie sucht Arbeit als Küchenhilfe.
  1. He is back on German ground and is looking in Stuttgart for work.
  2. I will look for myself for a job that pleases me.
  3. We looked for work in landscaping.
  4. Then he looks for work at Daimler.
  5. She is looking for work as kitchen help.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit.
  2. EMPLOYEE sucht eine Arbeit.
  3. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit in FIELD.dative.
  4. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit bei EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit als POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER.
  7. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  8. EMPLOYEE sucht Arbeit in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  1. EMPLOYEE looks for work.
  2. EMPLOYEE looks for a job.
  3. EMPLOYEE looks for work in FIELD.
  4. EMPLOYEE looks for work at EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE looks for work as POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE looks for work in FIELD at EMPLOYER.
  7. EMPLOYEE looks for work at EMPLOYER as POSITION.
  8. EMPLOYEE looks for work in FIELD at EMPLOYER as POSITION.

Details:

to look for work

This construction focuses on the actions of an Employee looking for employment. It is most general when the word "Arbeit" ("work") is used without an article. When used with an article, such as "eine Arbeit," ("a job") the focus is often on the type of employment, i.e. on the Position desired. However, without an article, the Position can be indicated following the preposition "als." When the Employer offering the Position is expressed, it is introduced by the preposition "bei" ("at), as in: "Gustav sucht Arbeit bei Siemens als Programmierer" ("Gustav is looking for work at Siemens as a programmer"). Finally, when the Field is indicated, the preposition in is used with the dative case (e.g. "
er sucht Arbeit im Finanzsektor," "he is looking for work in the financial sector").

Note that this verb is sometimes used with a reflexive pronoun (in dative). This adds a meaning like "for myself" in a sentence such as "ich begann mir Arbeit zu suchen," ("I started looking for work for myself").

Alternate Forms:

(er) sucht Arbeit, hat Arbeit gesucht, suchte Arbeit
das Angebot noun offer

Details:

offer

The noun is used as its English counterpart. It is often used together with the word "Job" in the compound noun "das Jobangebot" ("job offer"). Very often, the only frame element present is the Employee who receives the offer, but other details, especially the Position or Employer are sometimes included.

Example Sentences:

  1. un habe ich ein Angebot als Lagerist bei Lidl.
  2. Nach dem einjährigen Kurs bekam sie vier Jobangebote.
  3. Sie hörte von einem Jobangebot als Sekretärin an einer Universität.
  4. Er hatte auch ein Jobangebot als Geschäftsführer.
  5. Als er überlegt, wie er mit 16 Pfennigen den Tag überstehen soll, macht ihm ein alter Freund aus Wien das Angebotals "Gesellschaftstänzer" in einem Hotel zu arbeiten.
  1. Now I have an offer as a stockman at Lidl.
  2. After a one-year course, she received four job offers.
  3. She heard about a job offer as a secretary at a university.
  4. He had a job offer as a manager.
  5. As he ponders how he should survive the day with 16 pennies, an old friend from Vienna makes him the offer to work as "ballroom dancer" in a hotel.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE bekommt Angebot.
  2. EMPLOYEE bekommt Angebot als POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE bekommt Angebot als POSITION bei EMPLOYER.
  1. EMPLOYEE receives offer.
  2. EMPLOYEE receives offer as POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE receives offer as POSITION at EMPLOYER.

Details:

offer

The noun is used as its English counterpart. It is often used together with the word "Job" in the compound noun "das Jobangebot" ("job offer"). Very often, the only frame element present is the Employee who receives the offer, but other details, especially the Position or Employer are sometimes included.

Alternate Forms:

die Angebote (pl.)
das Vorstellungsgespräch noun interview

Details:

interview, lit. introduction conversation

Although this term translates directly to "introduction conversation," it is used more broadly, just like its English equivalent, "interview," to refer to the interactive process between a potential Employer and a potential Employee for a specific Position in a Field. It may include a viewing of the site of the Employer, a demonstration of the Employee's abilities to carry out the necessary Tasks for a Position. It usually involves a discussion of Compensation, as well. The term is used more or less interchangeably with "das Interview." Like the similar phenomonen in American culture, it may occur in person or over the phone ("Telefoninterview"or "Telefonvorstellungsgespräch") or via Skype ("Skype-Interview" or "Vorstellungsgespräch per Skype").

Example Sentences:

  1. Sechs Stunden dauerte sein Vorstellungsgespräch.
  2. Ich habe morgen ein Vorstellungsgespräch bei Amazon.
  3. Es ist ein gutes Zeichen, wenn das Vorstellungsgespräch etwas länger dauert.
  4. Ich hatte letzte Woche ein Vorstellungsgespräch für meinen Traumjob.
  5. Bei manchen Firmen ersetzen Accessment-Center das klassische Vorstellungsgespräch.
  1. His interview lasted six hours.
  2. I have tomorrow an interview at Amazon.
  3. It is a good sign when the interview lasts somewhat longer.
  4. I had last week an interview for my dream job.
  5. At some firms, Accessment-Centers are replacing the classical interview.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEE's Vorstellungsgespräch]
  2. EMPLOYEE hat ein Vorstellungsgespräch bei EMPLOYER.
  1. [EMPLOYEE's interview]
  2. EMPLOYEE has an interview at EMPLOYER.

Details:

interview, lit. introduction conversation

Although this term translates directly to "introduction conversation," it is used more broadly, just like its English equivalent, "interview," to refer to the interactive process between a potential Employer and a potential Employee for a specific Position in a Field. It may include a viewing of the site of the Employer, a demonstration of the Employee's abilities to carry out the necessary Tasks for a Position. It usually involves a discussion of Compensation, as well. The term is used more or less interchangeably with "das Interview." Like the similar phenomonen in American culture, it may occur in person or over the phone ("Telefoninterview"or "Telefonvorstellungsgespräch") or via Skype ("Skype-Interview" or "Vorstellungsgespräch per Skype").

Alternate Forms:

die Vorstellungsgespräche (pl.)
der Lebenslauf noun resumé, curriculum vitae (CV)

Details:

resumé, curriculum vitae (CV), lit. run of life

The literal meaning of this term ("run of life") fits well with the Latin "curriculum vitae," although German does not distinguish between a resumé and a CV in the way that English does. Instead, the term "Lebenslauf" is used for any kind of such document, although the "Lebenslauf" that a potential Employee creates is customized according to the relevant Field and Position. Click here or here for further examples.

The form of the German "Lebenslauf" differs in many specific ways from a resumé or CV. Most notably, the German version often contains a picture/portrait of the Employee applying for the Position so that the Employer has that information before the "Vorstellungsgespräch"("interview").

Example Sentences:

  1. Ein professionelles Porträtfoto im Lebenslauf hilft Bewerbern.
  2. Wenn Sie Ihre Tätigkeiten in Ihrem Lebenslauf auflisten, sollen Sie den richtigen Namen der Universität nutzen.
  3. Im Lebenslauf ist es hilfreich, die wichtigsten Tätigkeiten aufzuzählen.
  4. Bei Ingenieuren kann der Lebenslauf sehr lang werden.
  1. A professional portrait in a resumé helps applicants.
  2. If you list your activities in your resumé, you should use the correct name of the university.
  3. On a resumé, it is helpful to list the most important activities.
  4. For engineers, the resumé can get very long.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [in EMPLOYEEs Lebenslauf]
  1. [on EMPLOYEE'S CV]

Details:

resumé, curriculum vitae (CV), lit. run of life

The literal meaning of this term ("run of life") fits well with the Latin "curriculum vitae," although German does not distinguish between a resumé and a CV in the way that English does. Instead, the term "Lebenslauf" is used for any kind of such document, although the "Lebenslauf" that a potential Employee creates is customized according to the relevant Field and Position. Click here or here for further examples.

The form of the German "Lebenslauf" differs in many specific ways from a resumé or CV. Most notably, the German version often contains a picture/portrait of the Employee applying for the Position so that the Employer has that information before the "Vorstellungsgespräch"("interview").

Alternate Forms:

die Lebensläufe (pl.)
die Stellenanzeige noun job ad

Details:

job ad

The "Stellenanzeige" corresponds well to its English counterpart. It usually includes information on the Position, Field, and the needs for completing Tasks associated with the Position. There may be brief information about the Employer as well as the qualities desired in an Employee. Finally, there may be direct or indirect reference to the Compensation that will be offered.

Example Sentences:

  1. Dann las er die Stellenanzeige vom Radelmeister.
  2. So viele Menschen wie nie zuvor haben sich auf eine Stellenanzeige der Nasa hin als Astronauten beworben.
  3. Nur jedes zehnte Unternehmen nutzt dynamische Elemente in seinen Stellenanzeigen.
  4. Viele Unternehmen formulieren in ihren Stellenanzeigen extrem hohe Anforderungen.
  5. Viele Stellenanzeigen listen Aufgaben und Anforderungen hinter Spiegelstrichen auf.
  1. Then he read the job ad from Radelmeister.
  2. So many people as never before have responded to the job ad from Nasa for astronaut.
  3. Only every tenth company uses dynamic elements in its job ads.
  4. Many companies state extremely high needs in their job ads.
  5. Many job ads list tasks and requirements behind bullet points.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE liest eine Stellenanzeige.
  2. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf eine Stellenanzeige von EMPLOYER.
  3. [EMPLOYERs Stellenanzeige]
  1. EMPLOYEE reads a job ad.
  2. EMPLOYEE responds to a job ad from EMPLOYER.
  3. [EMPLOYER's job ad]

Details:

job ad

The "Stellenanzeige" corresponds well to its English counterpart. It usually includes information on the Position, Field, and the needs for completing Tasks associated with the Position. There may be brief information about the Employer as well as the qualities desired in an Employee. Finally, there may be direct or indirect reference to the Compensation that will be offered.

Alternate Forms:

die Stellenanzeigen (pl.)
einstellen verb to hire

Details:

to hire

This separable prefix verb functions and shares meaning with the "hire" sense of "anstellen." It thus only refers to the beginning of employment (in contrast to "anstellen;" see that entry for more information). This verb is often used in passive voice (see sentence template 3, example 3 and this explanation of passive from Grimm Grammar).

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie stellte ihn als Volontär bei der Sparkasse ein.
  2. Ich glaube, ich würde eher eine Türkin einstellen.
  3. Im Mai wurde er als Trompeter im 1. Artillerieregimente eingestellt.
  4. Seebeck müßte 62 Verwaltungsangestellte entlassen und 64 Arbeiter einstellen.
  1. She hired him as a volunteer at the savings bank.
  2. I think I would rather hire a Turkish woman.
  3. In May, he was hired as a trumpeter in the First Artillery Regiment.
  4. Seebeck had to fire 62 administrators and hire 64 workers.

Grammar:

Verbs with Separable Prefixes

Some verbs have a prefix that moves around in the sentence, depending on what form the verb takes. In the infinitive form, the prefix is attached, like "ausgehen" (to go out). If the verb is conjugated (in present or simple past tense), the prefix appears at the end of the clause, as in "Ich gehe heute Abend aus." For more information about these verbs, see the examples for individual verbs or read these explanations from Grimm Grammar: present tense, conversational past tense (Perfekt).

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE ein.
  2. EMPLOYER stellt EMPLOYEE als POSITION ein.
  3. EMPLOYEE wird als POSITION eingestellt.
  1. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYER hires EMPLOYEE as POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE is hired as POSITION.

Details:

to hire

This separable prefix verb functions and shares meaning with the "hire" sense of "anstellen." It thus only refers to the beginning of employment (in contrast to "anstellen;" see that entry for more information). This verb is often used in passive voice (see sentence template 3, example 3 and this explanation of passive from Grimm Grammar).

Alternate Forms:

(er) stellt ein, hat eingestellt, stellte ein
entlassen verb to fire, to let go

Details:

to fire, to let go

This verb is often used with passive voice, regularly lacking the Employer who did the firing (see sentence templates 2-3, examples 2-3, and this explanation for details).

Unlike in English, German does not represent the difference between to fire and to lay off with different verbs. Therefore, the distinction must be understood through context or with other sentence elements.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Vizedirektorin kam und sagte mir, dass sie mich entlassen müsste.
  2. Er verdiente nur dreißig Mark die Woche, und wurde wegen Arbeitsmangels entlassen.
  3. Die muslimische Rezeptionistin wurde entlassen, weil sie während der Arbeit ein Kopftuch tragen wollte.
  4. Seebeck müßte 62 Verwaltungsangestellte entlassen und 64 Arbeiter einstellen.
  1. The vice director came and told me that she had to fire me.
  2. He earned only thirty marks per week and was laid off due to shortage of work.
  3. The Muslim receptionist was fired, because she wanted to wear during work a headscarf.
  4. Seebeck had to fire 62 administrators and hire 64 workers.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER entlässt EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYEE wird entlassen.
  3. EMPLOYEE wird von EMPLOYER entlassen.
  1. EMPLOYER fires EMPLOYEE.
  2. EMPLOYEE gets fired.
  3. EMPLOYEE gets fired by EMPLOYER.

Details:

to fire, to let go

This verb is often used with passive voice, regularly lacking the Employer who did the firing (see sentence templates 2-3, examples 2-3, and this explanation for details).

Unlike in English, German does not represent the difference between to fire and to lay off with different verbs. Therefore, the distinction must be understood through context or with other sentence elements.

Alternate Forms:

er entlässt, hat entlassen, entließ
in Rente gehen multi-word expression to go into retirement, to retire

Details:

to go into retirement, to retire

This phrase is used to refer to a person retiring at retirement age.

Extending beyond the Work frame, it can be used to talk about someone stopping a meaningful activity after a long time, e.g., "in Sachen Filmemachen in Rente gehen" ("to retire from making movies"). Unlike in English though, it cannot be used with a direct object, as in "to retire that outfit." For that figurative meaning, use "etwas in Rente schicken" ("to send something into retirement").

Example Sentences:

  1. Johann geht mit 65 in Rente.
  2. Arbeitnehmer können ab 63 Jahren in Rente gehen, wenn sie 45 Jahre gearbeitet haben.
  3. In Rente will der 59-jährige Däne aber noch nicht gehen.
  4. Es ist unklar, wann der Rentner in Rente gegangen ist.
  1. Johann is going into retirement at 65.
  2. Workers can retire at 63 with if they have worked 45 years.
  3. But the 59 year-old Dane did not yet want to retire.
  4. It is unclear when the retiree retired.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE geht in Rente.
  1. EMPLOYEE retires.

Details:

to go into retirement, to retire

This phrase is used to refer to a person retiring at retirement age.

Extending beyond the Work frame, it can be used to talk about someone stopping a meaningful activity after a long time, e.g., "in Sachen Filmemachen in Rente gehen" ("to retire from making movies"). Unlike in English though, it cannot be used with a direct object, as in "to retire that outfit." For that figurative meaning, use "etwas in Rente schicken" ("to send something into retirement").

Alternate Forms:

(er) geht in Rente, ist in Rente gegangen, ging in Rente
pensioniert adjective retired

Details:

retired

This adjective is used just as in English. Its form is identical to the past participle of the transitive verb "pensionieren" ("to pension [someone]", "to retire [someone]"); see the grammar note Making Adjectives from Verbs for details on how this works.

Example Sentences:

  1. Heute ist er pensioniert.
  2. Der pensionierte Allgemeinarzt kommt aus Köthen in Sachsen-Anhalt.
  3. Seither sind die Tage des pensionierten Professors stiller geworden.
  4. Der pensionierte Neurochirurg Ben Carson hielt eine Rede.
  1. Today he is retired.
  2. The retired general doctor comes from Köthen in Sachsen-Anhalt.
  3. Since then, the days of the retired professors have become more peaceful.
  4. The retired neurosurgeon Ben Carson is giving a speech.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Making Adjectives from Verbs

In German (just as in English), the past participles of verbs (with the -ed ending in English) can be used as adjectives, known as "participial adjectives." Add an adjective ending when appropriate. Even a verb's present participle can be used as an adjective. This form of the verb is similar in meaning to English ing-forms, and is formed in German by adding a "d" (and an adjective ending, if necessary) to the infinitive form of the verb. Adjectives formed in this way apply to the type of frame element that would fill the subject role of the verb (e.g. überraschend applies to a Stimulus, and  ).

Example: enttäuschen, überraschen (normal use as verbs)

     Jens enttäuscht seine Mutter. (Jens disappoints his mother.)

     Das Ende der Geschichte überrascht Lena. (The end of the story surprises Lena.)

Adjectives from Past Participles: 

Example: enttäuschen (to disappoint) > enttäuscht

     Seine Mutter war enttäuscht, dass er bei der Prüfung durchgefallen ist. (His mother was disappointed that he failed the test.)

     Die enttäuschte Mutter weint. (The disappointed mother cries.)

The way frame elements are realized with the verb determine what the adjective can be used to describe. Details are given in the table below.

Subject of VerbDirect ObjectAdjective applies to:Examples
StimulusExperiencerExperienceraufgeregt (worked up), schockiert (shocked), enttäuscht (disappointed)
Experiencer

Content or Stimulus

Content or Stimulus

gefürchtet (feared), gehasst (hated), geliebt (loved)

*Note that this is not the same as passive voice, which also uses a past participle. See Grimm Grammar for infomation about passive.

Adjectives from Present Participles:

Example: überraschen > überraschend (surprising)

     Das Ende der Geschichte war überraschend. (The end of the story was surprising.)

     Das war ein überraschendes Ende. (That was a surprising ending.)

 

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE ist pensioniert.
  2. [pensioniert- EMPLOYEE]
  3. [pensioniert- POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE is retired.
  2. [retired EMPLOYEE]
  3. [retired POSITION]

Details:

retired

This adjective is used just as in English. Its form is identical to the past participle of the transitive verb "pensionieren" ("to pension [someone]", "to retire [someone]"); see the grammar note Making Adjectives from Verbs for details on how this works.

sich bewerben (um/auf + akk.) verb to apply (for)

Details:

to apply (for)

This verb is used with an accusative reflexive pronoun, as well as with the prepositions "um" or "auf" with the accusative. The meanings of the two prepositions are more or less identical, however, the former, "um," is far more common than the latter, "auf." The verb indicates an Employee who is applying for a Position. There is often more information regarding the Field in which the Position exists, indicated by the preposition "in" (dative), or the Employer offering the Position, usually indicated by the preposition "bei" (also dative).

When used with "Anzeige" to express that the potential Employee is applying to a job from an ad, this verb is used with the phrase "sich auf eine Anzeige bewerben" in a way that is not possible in English: "to apply to an ad." In such expressions, the Position can be expressed as a phrase with "als," as in "ich bewerbe mich auf die Anzeige als Kellner" ("I'm applying to the ad for a server"). See examples 5 and 6.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie bewerben sich um einen guten Job.
  2. Die Ehrgeizigen bewerben sich um die Ämter, die käuflich geworden sind.
  3. Er hat sich auf eine Professur für Geschichte beworben.
  4. Sie bewarb sich auf eine Stelle bei der Firma.
  5. Ich werde mich nicht auf die Anzeige als Hilfsarbeiter bewerben!
  6. "Nicht selten bewerben sich 800 Jobsuchende auf eine Anzeige", schätzt Leitner.
  1. You are applying for a good job.
  2. The ambitious people apply for the offices that have become corrupt.
  3. He applied for a professorship in history.
  4. She applied for a job at the company.
  5. I will not to the ad for labourer apply!
  6. "Not rarely, 800 job-seekers apply to one ad", estimates Leitner.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION.accusative.
  2. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative.
  3. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION in FIELD.dative.
  4. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION bei EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich um POSITION in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER.
  6. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative in FIELD.dative.
  7. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative bei EMPLOYER.
  8. EMPLOYEE bewirbt sich auf POSITION.accusative in FIELD.dative bei EMPLOYER.
  1. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION.
  2. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION.
  3. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD.
  4. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION at EMPLOYER.
  5. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD at EMPLOYER.
  6. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD.
  7. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION at EMPLOYER.
  8. EMPLOYEE applies for a POSITION in FIELD at EMPLOYER.

Details:

to apply (for)

This verb is used with an accusative reflexive pronoun, as well as with the prepositions "um" or "auf" with the accusative. The meanings of the two prepositions are more or less identical, however, the former, "um," is far more common than the latter, "auf." The verb indicates an Employee who is applying for a Position. There is often more information regarding the Field in which the Position exists, indicated by the preposition "in" (dative), or the Employer offering the Position, usually indicated by the preposition "bei" (also dative).

When used with "Anzeige" to express that the potential Employee is applying to a job from an ad, this verb is used with the phrase "sich auf eine Anzeige bewerben" in a way that is not possible in English: "to apply to an ad." In such expressions, the Position can be expressed as a phrase with "als," as in "ich bewerbe mich auf die Anzeige als Kellner" ("I'm applying to the ad for a server"). See examples 5 and 6.

Alternate Forms:

(er) bewirbt sich um/auf ..., hat sich um/auf ... beworben, bewarb sich um/auf ...
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
angestellt adjective employed

Details:

employed

From the verb "anstellen," this adjective is used much like its English translation. To indicate non-temporary employment, one can add "fest" as an adverb, as in: "Jens ist bei Migros fest angestellt" ("Jens is steadily employed at Migros").

Example Sentences:

  1. Als was bist du beim Zirkus angestellt?
  2. Sie ist bei einer Bremer Brauerei fest angestellt.
  3. Wie heißt das Unternehmen, bei dem der Mann angestellt ist?
  1. As what are you employed at the circus?
  2. She is at a Bremen brewery permanently employed.
  3. What is the name of the company at which the man is employed?

Grammar:

Making Adjectives from Verbs

In German (just as in English), the past participles of verbs (with the -ed ending in English) can be used as adjectives, known as "participial adjectives." Add an adjective ending when appropriate. Even a verb's present participle can be used as an adjective. This form of the verb is similar in meaning to English ing-forms, and is formed in German by adding a "d" (and an adjective ending, if necessary) to the infinitive form of the verb. Adjectives formed in this way apply to the type of frame element that would fill the subject role of the verb (e.g. überraschend applies to a Stimulus, and  ).

Example: enttäuschen, überraschen (normal use as verbs)

     Jens enttäuscht seine Mutter. (Jens disappoints his mother.)

     Das Ende der Geschichte überrascht Lena. (The end of the story surprises Lena.)

Adjectives from Past Participles: 

Example: enttäuschen (to disappoint) > enttäuscht

     Seine Mutter war enttäuscht, dass er bei der Prüfung durchgefallen ist. (His mother was disappointed that he failed the test.)

     Die enttäuschte Mutter weint. (The disappointed mother cries.)

The way frame elements are realized with the verb determine what the adjective can be used to describe. Details are given in the table below.

Subject of VerbDirect ObjectAdjective applies to:Examples
StimulusExperiencerExperienceraufgeregt (worked up), schockiert (shocked), enttäuscht (disappointed)
Experiencer

Content or Stimulus

Content or Stimulus

gefürchtet (feared), gehasst (hated), geliebt (loved)

*Note that this is not the same as passive voice, which also uses a past participle. See Grimm Grammar for infomation about passive.

Adjectives from Present Participles:

Example: überraschen > überraschend (surprising)

     Das Ende der Geschichte war überraschend. (The end of the story was surprising.)

     Das war ein überraschendes Ende. (That was a surprising ending.)

 

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE ist als POSITION angestellt.
  2. EMPLOYEE ist bei EMPLOYER angestellt.
  3. EMPLOYEE ist bei EMPLOYER als POSITION angestellt.
  1. EMPLOYEE is employed as POSITION.
  2. EMPLOYEE is employed by EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE is employed as POSITION by EMPLOYER.

Details:

employed

From the verb "anstellen," this adjective is used much like its English translation. To indicate non-temporary employment, one can add "fest" as an adverb, as in: "Jens ist bei Migros fest angestellt" ("Jens is steadily employed at Migros").

arbeiten verb to work

Details:

to work

This verb is used more or less identically to its English equivalent. It is both the general term for "to work", and is also used more specifically to both refer to manual labor and to long-term work. The latter is used in opposition to "jobben" ("to work"), which is used for temporary work.

The preposition "bei" is used to express the Employer, where English uses the preposition "at" (e.g. "bei Starbucks," "at Starbucks;" "bei Edeka," "at Edeka"). "Für" ("for") can also introduce the Employer, which usually construes the Employer as more of a person or a group of people than as a place (which is the case for "bei"). In other, less common situations, the noun that denotes the Employer can allow other prepositions to be used (e.g. "an der Uni," "at the university;" "am Institut," "at the institute").

Example Sentences:

  1. Annette arbeitete damals in Ost-Berlin.
  2. Er hat beim Landgericht in Prag gearbeitet.
  3. Barbarossa arbeitete als Küchengehilfe.
  4. Zuerst arbeitete er im Maschinenbaufach, dann in geodätischen Instrumenten.
  5. Niemand würde für einen Hungerlohn arbeiten.
  6. Also ab März arbeiten Sie für mich, was bedeutet, daß Sie für mich und den Lehrstuhl arbeiten.
  7. Der Autor arbeitet als Verhaltensforscher am Institut für Wildbiologie und Jagdkunde der Universität Göttingen.
  8. Er arbeitet acht Stunden pro Tag.
  9. Ich verdiene netto 1200 Euro, dafür muß ich 10 Stunden am Tag arbeiten.
  10. Er arbeitet jeden Tag von Viertel nach neun bis sieben.
  11. Sieben Jahre lang haben sie dann an ihrem Projekt gearbeitet.
  12. Danach arbeitet er zwölf Jahre in seinem Beruf als Anwalt.
  13. Seine Firma arbeitet im Auftrag von MAN Roland im Irak.
  14. In Mannheim und Heidelberg arbeitete er als Praktikant dann für verschiedene Firmen.
  1. Annette worked back then in East Berlin.
  2. He worked at the regional court in Prague.
  3. Barbarossa worked as a kitchen helper.
  4. He first worked in mechanical engineering, then in geodetic instruments.
  5. No one would for starvation wages work.
  6. So as of March, you work for me, which means that you for me and the chair work.
  7. The author works as a behaviorist at the Institute for Wildlife and Hunting Studies of the University of Göttingen.
  8. He works eight hours per day.
  9. I earn net 1200 Euros, for that I must work 10 hours a day.
  10. He works every day from quarter after nine until seven.
  11. Seven years long have they then worked on their project.
  12. After that he works for twelve years in his profession as an attorney.
  13. His company works under contract of MAN Roland in Iraq.
  14. In Mannheim and Heidelberg he worked as an intern, then for various companies.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE arbeitet.
  2. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE arbeitet für EMPLOYER.
  4. EMPLOYEE arbeitet an TASK.dative.
  5. EMPLOYEE arbeitet als POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE arbeitet in FIELD.
  7. EMPLOYEE arbeitet für COMPENSATION.
  8. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  9. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  10. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER für COMPENSATION.
  11. EMPLOYEE arbeitet als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  1. EMPLOYEE works.
  2. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE works for EMPLOYER.
  4. EMPLOYEE works on TASK.
  5. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE works in FIELD.
  7. EMPLOYEE works for COMPENSATION
  8. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION
  9. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION for COMPENSATION.
  10. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER for COMPENSATION.
  11. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION for COMPENSATION.

Details:

to work

This verb is used more or less identically to its English equivalent. It is both the general term for "to work", and is also used more specifically to both refer to manual labor and to long-term work. The latter is used in opposition to "jobben" ("to work"), which is used for temporary work.

The preposition "bei" is used to express the Employer, where English uses the preposition "at" (e.g. "bei Starbucks," "at Starbucks;" "bei Edeka," "at Edeka"). "Für" ("for") can also introduce the Employer, which usually construes the Employer as more of a person or a group of people than as a place (which is the case for "bei"). In other, less common situations, the noun that denotes the Employer can allow other prepositions to be used (e.g. "an der Uni," "at the university;" "am Institut," "at the institute").

Alternate Forms:

(er) arbeitet, hat gearbeitet, arbeitete
arbeitslos adjective unemployed

Details:

unemployed

This term is used the same as in English.

Example Sentences:

  1. Am nächsten Morgen war er arbeitslos.
  2. Sie hatten keine richtige Arbeit, waren aber auch nicht arbeitslos.
  3. Natürlich ist es nicht einfach, arbeitslos zu sein.
  4. Über die Hälfte der Eingewanderten ist auch nach dem fünften Jahr in Deutschland arbeitslos.
  5. Die Folge sind immer mehr arbeitslose Arbeiter und sinkende Löhne.
  6. Die Geschichte um die arbeitslosen Stahlarbeiter, die in ihrer Not eine Strippertruppe gründen, spielt nicht zufällig in Sheffield.
  7. Im selben Jahr gab es insgesamt 4579 arbeitslose Chemiker, immerhin 19 Prozent weniger als ein Jahr zuvor.
  1. The next morning, he was unemployed.
  2. They had no proper work, were although also not unemployed.
  3. Naturally, it is not easy to be unemployed.
  4. Over half of the immigrants are also after the fifth year in Germany unemployed.
  5. The consequence is always more unemployed workers and sinking wages.
  6. The story about the unemployed steel workers, who in their hardship create a stripper-troop, is set not by accident in Sheffield.
  7. In the same year there were in total 4579 unemployed chemists, still 19 percent less than one year before.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE ist/wird arbeitslos.
  2. [arbeitslos- EMPLOYEE]
  1. EMPLOYEE is/becomes unemployed.
  2. [unemployed EMPLOYEE]

Details:

unemployed

This term is used the same as in English.

bei (dat.) preposition at

Details:

at

This dative preposition is used together with an Employer to refer to where an Employee works. This is not meant to refer to the physical location, but rather the institution (or sometimes the individual person). 

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach dem Examen bekam er sofort eine Stelle bei Siemens in Berlin.
  2. Nun habe ich ein Angebot als Lagerist bei Lidl.
  3. Sein Vertrag bei Bayer Leverkusen wurde nach einer Prügelei aufgelöst.
  1. After the exam, he immediately got a position at Siemens.
  2. Now I have an offer as a stockman at Lidl.
  3. His contract at Bayer Leverkusen was annulled after a fist fight.

Grammar:

Dative Prepositions

For these prepositions, the noun that follows must be in the dative case. The charts below show the articles in dative. Don't forget to add an extra "n" to dative plurals!

  • aus
  • außer
  • bei
  • mit 
  • nach
  • seit
  • von 
  • zu
 

 der-Wörter

 ein-Wörter
m.demeinem
f.dereiner
n.demeinem
pl.den ---n(meinen ---n)

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE arbeitet bei EMPLOYER.
  1. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER.

Details:

at

This dative preposition is used together with an Employer to refer to where an Employee works. This is not meant to refer to the physical location, but rather the institution (or sometimes the individual person). 

bezahlen verb to pay

Details:

to pay

Although this verb can be (and is occasionally) used to describe how an Employer pays for a Task, it is primarily used to discuss how an Employee is paid for a Task. It is thus most commonly used in the passive and without reference to the Employer. When referring to the Task that is being paid for, German uses the preposition "für," here equivalent to the English "for."

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich werde bezahlt, um Sie zu behandeln, aber nicht, um Sie zu unterhalten.
  2. Die Jugendlichen werden für ihre Arbeit bezahlt.
  3. Es gibt viele Mitarbeiter, die gut bezahlt werden.
  4. Ich bin dafür, dass alle sofort besser bezahlt werden.
  5. Die chinesische Firma Nao Baijin will Menschen genau dafür bezahlen.
  1. I am paid to deal with you but not to entertain you.
  2. The youths are paid for their work.
  3. There are many workers who are paid well.
  4. I am for everyone immediately being paid better.
  5. The Chinese company Nao Baijin wants to pay people for exactly that.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE wird bezahlt.
  2. EMPLOYEE wird für TASK bezahlt.
  3. EMPLOYEE wird COMPENSATION für TASK bezahlt.
  4. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE.
  5. EMPLOYER bezahlt COMPENSATION.
  6. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE für TASK.
  8. EMPLOYER bezahlt EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION für TASK.
  1. EMPLOYEE is paid.
  2. EMPLOYEE is paid for TASK.
  3. EMPLOYEE is paid COMPENSATION for TASK.
  4. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE.
  5. EMPLOYER pays COMPENSATION.
  6. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE for TASK.
  8. EMPLOYER pays EMPLOYEE COMPENSATION for TASK.

Details:

to pay

Although this verb can be (and is occasionally) used to describe how an Employer pays for a Task, it is primarily used to discuss how an Employee is paid for a Task. It is thus most commonly used in the passive and without reference to the Employer. When referring to the Task that is being paid for, German uses the preposition "für," here equivalent to the English "for."

Alternate Forms:

(er) bezahlt, hat bezahlt, bezahlte
das Gehalt noun pay, salary

Details:

pay, salary

This noun corresponds closely to the English "salary" implying a regular payment to an Employee for work, often disbursed on a regular monthly scale. It is not used to refer to the amount paid for hourly work.

Example Sentences:

  1. Viele Familien in Deutschland verdienen zwei Gehälter.
  2. Er hatte kaum die Mittel, den Beamten ihre Gehälter zu zahlen.
  3. Jetzt wachsen die Gehälter schneller als die Gewinne.
  4. Die Spieler bekamen ihr Gehalt, ohne dafür arbeiten zu müssen.
  5. Bis heute erhalten Universitätsprofessoren ein höheres Gehalt als ihre FH-Kollegen.
  6. Der 53jährige Kunstwissenschaftler wird zum 31. Dezember betriebsbedingt gekündigt und bis dahin bei vollem Gehalt von der Arbeit freigestellt.
  1. Many families in Germany earn two salaries.
  2. He had hardly the means to pay the officials their salaries.
  3. Now the salaries are growing faster than the profits.
  4. The players received their salaries without having to work for it.
  5. Up to today university professors receive a higher salary than their FH-colleagues. (FH = Fachhochschule, "technical school")
  6. The 53 year-old art historian is as of the 31st of December layed off and until then at full salary exempted from work.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE erhält ein Gehalt.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Gehalt]
  1. EMPLOYEE receives a salary.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's salary]

Details:

pay, salary

This noun corresponds closely to the English "salary" implying a regular payment to an Employee for work, often disbursed on a regular monthly scale. It is not used to refer to the amount paid for hourly work.

Alternate Forms:

die Gehälter (pl.)
der Arbeitstag noun work day

Details:

work day

This noun is used more or less precisely as in English. It is contrasted with "Feiertag" ("free day" or "holiday").

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Mann kommt nach seinem Arbeitstag nach Hause.
  2. Der Ministerpräsident hat seinen letzten Arbeitstag am Dienstag.
  3. Michael Schumachers Arbeitstag endete schon nach der ersten Runde.
  4. Der Arbeitstag variiert ja nach Betrieb.
  5. Häufig dauern die Arbeitstage sehr lange.
  6. Die EU-Kommission hat jetzt 90 Arbeitstage Zeit, um zu einem Ergebnis zu gelangen.
  1. The man comes after his work day home.
  2. The Prime Minister has his last work day on Tuesday.
  3. Michael Schumacher's work day ended already after the first round.
  4. The work day varies according to business.
  5. Frequently, the work days last very long.
  6. The EU Commission has now 90 work days time to reach a conclusion.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Arbeitstag]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's work day]

Details:

work day

This noun is used more or less precisely as in English. It is contrasted with "Feiertag" ("free day" or "holiday").

Alternate Forms:

die Arbeitstage (pl.)
der Auftrag noun order, contract

Details:

order

This term is used to talk about a Task given to either an Employee by an Employer or given to another Employer by an Employer. Used with "in" (dative), it means "on behalf of" or "by order of," to indicate that the action the Employee is taking is part of a task they were contracted to do, not simply of their own accord. The expression "in Auftrag geben" ("to commission," lit. "to give an order") is also very common to express the assignment of a Task to an Employee or company. English often uses the term "contract" to refer to the order that is being assigned (e.g. "die Stadt gibt ihm den Auftrag," "the city is giving him the contract"/"the city is commissioning him"). Note that "Auftrag" does not refer to the physical paper of the contract, but rather to the agreement to complete a Task.

Example Sentences:

  1. Vor einem Jahr hat sie den Auftrag erhalten.
  2. Im Auftrag des Arbeitsamtes macht er "Bewerber-Coaching".
  3. 1939 bekam er den Auftrag, das neue Parlamentsgebäude in Ankara zu bauen.
  4. Kürzlich hat das Pentagon der Rüstungsfirma Raytheon den Auftrag gegeben, die Waffe zu modernisieren.
  5. Nur selten wird etwas über die "Red Teams" bekannt, die im Auftrag der US-Regierung hacken.
  6. Dieser hatte bezahlt, weil Chiesa seiner Putzfirma den Auftrag zur Reinigung des Altersheimes gegeben hatte.
  1. One year ago, she got the order.
  2. On behalf of the employment office he does "Applicant-Coaching."
  3. In 1939 he got the contract to build the new parlament building in Ankara.
  4. Recently the Pentagon gave the arms manufacturer Raytheon the contract to modernize the weapon.
  5. Only rarely is something about the "Red Teams" known, who hack under contract of the US-government.
  6. This one had paid, because Chiesa had given his cleaning company the order for the cleaning of the retirement home.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER gibt EMPLOYER einen Auftrag.
  2. EMPLOYER gibt EMPLOYEE einen Auftrag.
  3. EMPLOYER gibt EMPLOYEE den Auftrag, TASK.Infinitivsatz.
  4. EMPLOYEE arbeitet im Auftrag EMPLOYER.genitive.
  1. EMPLOYER gives EMPLOYER an order.
  2. EMPLOYER gives EMPLOYEE an order.
  3. EMPLOYER gives EMPLOYEE the order, TASK.infinitive_clause.
  4. EMPLOYEE works under contract of EMPLOYER.

Details:

order

This term is used to talk about a Task given to either an Employee by an Employer or given to another Employer by an Employer. Used with "in" (dative), it means "on behalf of" or "by order of," to indicate that the action the Employee is taking is part of a task they were contracted to do, not simply of their own accord. The expression "in Auftrag geben" ("to commission," lit. "to give an order") is also very common to express the assignment of a Task to an Employee or company. English often uses the term "contract" to refer to the order that is being assigned (e.g. "die Stadt gibt ihm den Auftrag," "the city is giving him the contract"/"the city is commissioning him"). Note that "Auftrag" does not refer to the physical paper of the contract, but rather to the agreement to complete a Task.

Alternate Forms:

die Aufträge (pl.)
der Beruf noun profession, career

Details:

profession, career

The meanings of its English "profession" is contained in "Beruf," however, it has a further meaning, which refers to the training a person has, even if it is not being used. In English, the phrase, "I'm a teacher by profession" typically implies that you are working as a teacher, whereas "ich bin Lehrer von Beruf" can mean that you have training as a teacher, but are not currently working.

Example Sentences:

  1. Es ist einfach ein wunderschönes Gefühl, seinen Beruf ausüben zu können.
  2. Fußballspielen ist kein Beruf wie jeder andere.
  3. Was mögen Sie besonders an Ihrem Beruf?
  4. Ihr Ex-Mann ist evangelischer Pfarrer von Beruf.
  5. Jeder Schüler muss einen Beruf lernen.
  6. Ernst hatte sich nie für meinen Beruf interessiert.
  7. Ich bin jetzt 20 Jahre in dem Beruf, aber für mich bin ich immer noch Anfänger.
  1. It is simply an amazing feeling to be able to practice one's profession.
  2. Playing soccer is not a profession like any other.
  3. What do you like especially about your profession?
  4. Her ex-husband is a Protestant preacher by profession.
  5. Every student must learn a profession.
  6. Ernst had never been interested in my profession.
  7. I am now 20 years in the profession, but for me I am still yet a beginner.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Beruf]
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Beruf als POSITION]
  3. [Beruf als POSITION]
  4. EMPLOYEE ist POSITION von Beruf.
  5. EMPLOYEE lernt einen Beruf.
  1. [EMPLOYEE's profession]
  2. [EMPLOYEE's profession as POSITION]
  3. [profession as POSITION]
  4. EMPLOYEE ist POSITION by profession.
  5. EMPLOYEE learns a profession.

Details:

profession, career

The meanings of its English "profession" is contained in "Beruf," however, it has a further meaning, which refers to the training a person has, even if it is not being used. In English, the phrase, "I'm a teacher by profession" typically implies that you are working as a teacher, whereas "ich bin Lehrer von Beruf" can mean that you have training as a teacher, but are not currently working.

Alternate Forms:

die Berufe (pl.)
der Chef noun boss

Details:

boss

This term is used like its English equivalent. It is also used to mean "manager," with the second meaning being a bit more formal than "boss." Whereas there is a difference in register, if not meaning, between "He is the boss at this branch of Deutsche Bank" and "He is the manager at this branch of Deutsche Bank," both can be represented by "Er ist der Chef bei dieser Filiale der Deutschen Bank."

Because bosses can be construed both as Employees of a company and as Employers of any Employees below them, this term can be used to refer to someone who represents either the Employer frame element or the Employee frame element, depending on the context. See the examples section.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach dem Tod von Steve Jobs wurde Tim Cook Chef des großen US-Unternehmens.
  2. Gerne würde ich diese Frage mit meinem Chef besprechen.
  3. Der Chef bat um Geduld bei der Ermittlung der Unfallursache.
  1. After the death of Steve Jobs, Tim Cook became the boss of the large US company.
  2. I would like to discuss this discuss this question with my boss.
  3. The boss asked for patience in the determination of the accident's cause.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYER ist EMPLOYEEs Chef.
  2. [Chefs EMPLOYER]
  3. [Chefs EMPLOYEE]
  1. EMPLOYER is EMPLOYEE's boss.
  2. [boss's EMPLOYER]
  3. [boss's EMPLOYEE]

Details:

boss

This term is used like its English equivalent. It is also used to mean "manager," with the second meaning being a bit more formal than "boss." Whereas there is a difference in register, if not meaning, between "He is the boss at this branch of Deutsche Bank" and "He is the manager at this branch of Deutsche Bank," both can be represented by "Er ist der Chef bei dieser Filiale der Deutschen Bank."

Because bosses can be construed both as Employees of a company and as Employers of any Employees below them, this term can be used to refer to someone who represents either the Employer frame element or the Employee frame element, depending on the context. See the examples section.

Alternate Forms:

die Chefs (pl.); die Chefin (fem. sing.); die Chefinnen (fem. pl.)
der Job noun job

Details:

job

Although this term was used in the past to refer to the type of work associated with "jobben" ("to do temp work" or "to moonlight"), i.e., not the type of work that contributes to a career, the term is now used broadly like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach seinem Job im Copy-Shop kommt Felix zu mir.
  2. Seine letzten Jobs als Taxifahrer und Kinokartenabreißer waren problematisch.
  3. Er hat jetzt keine Chance, einen Job bei der Deutschen Bank zu bekommen.
  4. Wegen Überkapazitäten will China 1,8 Millionen Jobs in der Stahl- und Kohleindustrie abbauen.
  1. After his job at the copy shop, Felix comes to my place.
  2. His last jobs as taxi driver and movie ticket tearer were problematic.
  3. He has now no chance to get a job at Deutsche Bank.
  4. Due to overcapacities, China wants to phase out 1.8 million jobs in the steel and coal industries.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE hat einen Job.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Job]
  3. [Job bei EMPLOYER]
  4. [Job als POSITION]
  5. [Job in FIELD]
  6. [Job bei EMPLOYER als POSITION]
  7. [Job bei EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [Job in FIELD als POSITION]
  9. [ob bei EMPLOYER in FIELD als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE hat einen Job.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's job]
  3. [job at EMPLOYER]
  4. [job as POSITION]
  5. [job in FIELD]
  6. [job at EMPLOYER as POSITION]
  7. [job at EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [job in FIELD as POSITION]
  9. [job at EMPLOYER in FIELD as POSITION]

Details:

job

Although this term was used in the past to refer to the type of work associated with "jobben" ("to do temp work" or "to moonlight"), i.e., not the type of work that contributes to a career, the term is now used broadly like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

die Jobs (pl.)
der Kollege noun colleague

Details:

colleague

This term is used very similarly to its English equivalent. It is sometimes used similarly to the English "coworker" as well, as "der Mitarbeiter" ("coworker") is often used more widely to mean "employee." 

The masculine singular form of "Kollege" is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" at the end whenever it appears in a case other than nominative: "den Kollegen" (acc.), "dem Kollegen" (dat.), "des Kollegen" (gen.). See Grimm Grammar for details.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie haben mehr Erfolg als ihre Kollegen, verdienen aber viel weniger.
  2. Er sucht Zeugen, die die Übergriffe auf ihre Kollegin beobachtet haben.
  3. John Kerry und sein russischer Kollege Lawrow führten Gespräche am Donnerstag in Moskau.
  1. They have more success than their colleagues, but earn much less.
  2. He is looking for witnesses that saw the attacks on their colleague.
  3. John Kerry and his Russian colleague Lavrov held talks on Thursday in Moscow.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Kollege]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's colleague]

Details:

colleague

This term is used very similarly to its English equivalent. It is sometimes used similarly to the English "coworker" as well, as "der Mitarbeiter" ("coworker") is often used more widely to mean "employee." 

The masculine singular form of "Kollege" is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" at the end whenever it appears in a case other than nominative: "den Kollegen" (acc.), "dem Kollegen" (dat.), "des Kollegen" (gen.). See Grimm Grammar for details.

Alternate Forms:

die Kollegen (pl.), die Kollegin (fem. sing.), Kolleginnen (fem. pl.)
der Lohn noun pay, wage

Details:

pay, wage

This noun is used to to refer to what we would use "wage" for in English. It typically fills the role of Compensation, and can either be specific and refer to an hourly, weekly, or monthly amount, or it can be more general. It is not used to refer to a salary in the sense of an amount paid regularly and not based on legth of time worked, but rather in work produced.

This word is often used the compounds "Stundenlohn" ("hourly wage") and "Mindestlohn" ("minimum wage").

Example Sentences:

  1. Die meisten können von ihren niedrigen Löhnen nicht leben.
  2. Zimmerer und Maurer erhielten zumeist den gleichen Lohn.
  3. Das würde mehr Sicherheit und höhere Löhne bedeuten.
  4. Das Ziel des Streiks war die Verdoppelung des Mindestlohns.
  1. Most cannot live from their low wages.
  2. Carpenters and masons received in most cases the same wage.
  3. That would mean more security and higher wages.
  4. The goal of the strike was the doubling of the minimum wage.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Lohn]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's wage]

Details:

pay, wage

This noun is used to to refer to what we would use "wage" for in English. It typically fills the role of Compensation, and can either be specific and refer to an hourly, weekly, or monthly amount, or it can be more general. It is not used to refer to a salary in the sense of an amount paid regularly and not based on legth of time worked, but rather in work produced.

This word is often used the compounds "Stundenlohn" ("hourly wage") and "Mindestlohn" ("minimum wage").

Alternate Forms:

die Löhne (pl.)
der Mitarbeiter noun coworker, worker, employee

Details:

coworker, lit. with-worker

Although this term can be used similary to English "coworker,"its meaning is a bit wider. It is most often used as another term for "worker" or "employee."

Example Sentences:

  1. Er war 1959 bis 1972 Mitarbeiter an der Deutschen Staatsbibliothek Berlin.
  2. Er ist Mitarbeiter bei der Stiftung für Frieden.
  3. Diese Büros wurden von Michel Platini und seinen Mitarbeitern genutzt.
  1. He was from 1959 to 1972 a worker at the German State Library Berlin.
  2. He is an employee at the foundation for peace.
  3. These offices were used by Michel Platini and his coworkers.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYERs Mitarbeiter]
  2. EMPLOYEE ist Mitarbeiter an/bei EMPLOYER.
  3. [Mitarbeiter an EMPLOYER]
  4. [Mitarbeiter bei EMPLOYER]
  5. [EMPLOYEEs Mitarbeiter]
  1. [EMPLOYER's worker]
  2. EMPLOYEE is a worker at EMPLOYER.
  3. [coworker at EMPLOYER]
  4. [coworker at EMPLOYER]
  5. [EMPLOYEE's coworker]

Details:

coworker, lit. with-worker

Although this term can be used similary to English "coworker,"its meaning is a bit wider. It is most often used as another term for "worker" or "employee."

Alternate Forms:

die Mitarbeiter (pl.); die Mitarbeiterin (fem. sing.); die Mitarbeiterinnen (fem. pl.)
der Unternehmer noun entrepreneur

Details:

entrepreneur, business owner

This is not used quite the same as the term "entrepreneur" in American English. In American English, when "entrepreneuer" is used, the stress is on a sense of ingenuity, free spirit, know-how, and expertise. The term in German does not carry this meaning at all, but rather focuses on the managerial, technocratic element. It simply refers to someone who owns and manages an "Unternehmen" ("company"), similar to "der Chef" ("boss").

As with "der Chef" ("boss"), "der Unternehmer" ("entrepreneur") can be construed as an Employer (when an Employee is mentioned) or as an Employee (when the focus is on the entrepreneur as someone who works, paricularly if the Field is mentioned). Alternatively, this term may not represent a frame element at all. See the annotated examples.

Example Sentences:

  1. Überwachung führt oft zu Konflikten zwischen Unternehmern und ihren Angestellten.
  2. Carlos Slim Helú ist ein mexikanischer Unternehmer der Telekommunikationsbranche.
  3. Unternehmer der Berliner Startup-Industrie gründeten Frühphaseninvestor Cavalry Ventures.
  1. Surveillance leads often to conflicts between entrepreneurs and their employees.
  2. Carlo Slim Helú is a Mexican entreprenuer in telecommunications.
  3. Entrepreneurs in the Berlin startup industry founded the early stage investor Cavalry Ventures.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [Unternehmers EMPLOYEE]
  2. [Unternehmer FIELD.genitive]
  1. [entrepreneur's EMPLOYEE]
  2. [enterpreneuer in FIELD]

Details:

entrepreneur, business owner

This is not used quite the same as the term "entrepreneur" in American English. In American English, when "entrepreneuer" is used, the stress is on a sense of ingenuity, free spirit, know-how, and expertise. The term in German does not carry this meaning at all, but rather focuses on the managerial, technocratic element. It simply refers to someone who owns and manages an "Unternehmen" ("company"), similar to "der Chef" ("boss").

As with "der Chef" ("boss"), "der Unternehmer" ("entrepreneur") can be construed as an Employer (when an Employee is mentioned) or as an Employee (when the focus is on the entrepreneur as someone who works, paricularly if the Field is mentioned). Alternatively, this term may not represent a frame element at all. See the annotated examples.

Alternate Forms:

die Unternehmer (pl.), die Unternehmerin (fem. sing.), die Unternehmerinnen (fem. pl.)
der Vertrag noun contract

Details:

contract

This term refers to a document that specifies an agreement between two parties, just as the English word, but is broader in scope so that it encompasses treaties as well (which of course do not fall within the Work frame). One difference in use of English "contract" involves an Employer hiring someone to do a particular Task, e.g. "BASF got the contract to build the library;" in such cases, the term "Auftrag" is used ("BASF erhielt den Auftrag, die Bibliothek zu bauen"). See the entry for Auftrag for details.

 

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Vertrag läuft zwei Jahre.
  2. Schon vor dem Examen haben viele einen Vertrag in der Tasche.
  3. Der Vertrag galt für ein Jahr mit der Möglichkeit der Verlängerung.
  4. Möhlmann unterschrieb beim Tabellen-18. einen Vertrag bis Juni 2017.
  5. In zwei Jahren läuft dieser Vertrag hier auch aus, dann kann ich mir wieder was Neues suchen.
  6. Sein Vertrag als Intendant der Münchner Kammerspiele läuft nach fast zwei Dezennien endgültig aus.
  7. Kurz darauf nahm Bayer auch noch die Martinsrieder Morphosys AG unter Vertrag.
  8. Wenn es darauf besteht, dass ich bleibe, werde ich auf eine Klausel im Vertrag verweisen, die mir ein Rücktrittsrecht einräumt, falls ich meine künstlerischen Vorstellungen nicht mehr verwirklichen kann.
  1. The contract is for two years.
  2. Already befor the exam, many have a contract in their pocket.
  3. The contract was good for a year with the possibility of renewal.
  4. Möhlmann signed with Tabellen-18 a contract to June 2017.
  5. In two years, this contract here also expires, then I can find myself something new.
  6. His contract as director of the Münchner Kammerspiele is finally running out after almost two decades.
  7. Shortly thereafter Bayer took also yet the Martinsrieder Morphosys AG under contract.
  8. If it is insisted that I stay, I will refer to a clause in the contract, which grants me a right to withdraw, in case I can my artistic ideas no longer realize.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE unterschreibt einen Vertrag.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Vertrag]
  1. EMPLOYEE signs a contract.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's contract]

Details:

contract

This term refers to a document that specifies an agreement between two parties, just as the English word, but is broader in scope so that it encompasses treaties as well (which of course do not fall within the Work frame). One difference in use of English "contract" involves an Employer hiring someone to do a particular Task, e.g. "BASF got the contract to build the library;" in such cases, the term "Auftrag" is used ("BASF erhielt den Auftrag, die Bibliothek zu bauen"). See the entry for Auftrag for details.

 

Alternate Forms:

die Verträge (pl.)
der/die Angestellte noun employee

Details:

employee

This term is quite close to its English equivalent, and refers to any Employee of an Employer. It is most specifically used in refererence to white-collar workers. The term for a blue-collar worker would be "Arbeiter" ("worker," "laborer").

Because this noun is derived from an adjective, it gets different endings depending on the case. See the grammar note.

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Angestellte verdient 2.700 Euro netto im Monat.
  2. Sie sprach mit einem ehemaligen Angestellten der Düsseldorfer Security-GmbH.
  3. Das sagte Theodoros Ioannides, ein Angestellter einer Pharmaindustrie.
  4. Ein Angestellter des Kernkraftunternehmens nahm sich das Leben.
  1. The employee earns 2,700 Euros net per month.
  2. She spoke with a former employee of Düsseldorf's Security-GmbH.
  3. Theodoros Ioannides, an employee of the pharma industry, said that.
  4. An employee of the nuclear energy company took his own life.

Grammar:

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [der Angestellte EMPLOYER.genitive]
  2. [der Angestellte FIELD.genitive]
  1. [employee of EMPLOYER]
  2. [employee in FIELD]

Details:

employee

This term is quite close to its English equivalent, and refers to any Employee of an Employer. It is most specifically used in refererence to white-collar workers. The term for a blue-collar worker would be "Arbeiter" ("worker," "laborer").

Because this noun is derived from an adjective, it gets different endings depending on the case. See the grammar note.

Alternate Forms:

die Angestellten (pl.)
der/die Vorgesetzte noun supervisor, superior

Details:

supervisor, superior

This term is used for anyone with more authority than an Employee in a company. Usually, it is not the ultimate boss, but someone more directly in control of the Employee (as in English). In this sense, it can also refer to any "superior" rather a direct supervisor.

As a noun that is derived from an adjective, this term gets different endings in different contexts. See the grammar note.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Vorgesetzter in meiner Firma unterstützt mich.
  2. Sie heiratete ihren Vorgesetzten.
  3. Sinnvoll ist hier, wenn ein Vorgesetzter seinem Mitarbeiter die Grenze aufzeigt.
  4. Sie können mit Ihren Vorgesetzten höhere Gehälter aushandeln.
  1. My supervisor in my company supports me.
  2. She married her supervisor.
  3. It is sensible here, when a supervisor shows his employees the limit.
  4. You can negotiate higher salaries with your supervisor.

Grammar:

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [EMPLOYEEs Vorgesetzter]
  2. [der Vorgesetztes EMPLOYEE]
  1. [EMPLOYEE's supervisor]
  2. [supervisor's EMPLOYEE]

Details:

supervisor, superior

This term is used for anyone with more authority than an Employee in a company. Usually, it is not the ultimate boss, but someone more directly in control of the Employee (as in English). In this sense, it can also refer to any "superior" rather a direct supervisor.

As a noun that is derived from an adjective, this term gets different endings in different contexts. See the grammar note.

Alternate Forms:

die Vorgesetzten (pl.)
die Arbeit noun work

Details:

work

This can be used in the same way as the English counterpart, but, like the term "der Arbeiter" ("the worker"), it can also refer specifically to manual labor. In contrast to English, the word "Arbeit" can be used with "eine" to indicate a job, so "sie sucht Arbeit" means "she's looking for work," while "sie sucht eine Arbeit" means "she's looking for a job."

"Arbeit" is commonly used in conjunction with verbs like "suchen" ("to look for"), "finden" ("to find"), "annehmen" ("to accept"), or "machen" ("to do"). To indicate that someone is "at" work, the phrase "an der Arbeit" is used. When expressing going "to" work, use either the preposition "zu" ("to") or "an" ("to"), as in: "ich gehe zur Arbeit" or "ich gehe an die Arbeit" ("I'm going to work").

Example Sentences:

  1. Die junge Frau sprach von ihrer Arbeit als Journalistin.
  2. Er konnte keine Arbeit in seinem Beruf finden.
  3. Er hat von seiner Arbeit bei Germanwings erzählt.
  4. Aber die Arbeit in der Landwirtschaft ist wesentlich produktiver.
  5. Das war seine Art zu zeigen, dass er seine Arbeit für seine Kinder machte.
  6. Eine Arbeit als Trainer hatte Klose als eine Option für die Zeit nach der aktiven Spielerkarriere genannt.
  7. Und wenn ein Flüchtling eine Arbeit hat, ist das schön.
  8. Jede Arbeit ist ihres Lohnes wert.
  1. The young woman spoke of her work as a journalist.
  2. He could find no work in his profession.
  3. He told of his work at German Wings.
  4. But work in agriculture is substantially more productive.
  5. That was his way to show that he did his work for his children.
  6. A job as trainer Klose had mentioned as an option for the time after the active player career.
  7. And when a refugee has a job, that is nice.
  8. Every work is worth its wage.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE sucht/findet eine Arbeit.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Arbeit]
  3. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER]
  4. [Arbeit als POSITION]
  5. [Arbeit in FIELD]
  6. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER als POSITION]
  7. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [Arbeit in FIELD als POSITION]
  9. [Arbeit bei EMPLOYER in FIELD als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE looks for/finds work.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's work]
  3. [work at EMPLOYER]
  4. [work as POSITION]
  5. [work in FIELD]
  6. [work at EMPLOYER as POSITION]
  7. [work at EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [work in FIELD as POSITION]
  9. [work at EMPLOYER in FIELD as POSITION]

Details:

work

This can be used in the same way as the English counterpart, but, like the term "der Arbeiter" ("the worker"), it can also refer specifically to manual labor. In contrast to English, the word "Arbeit" can be used with "eine" to indicate a job, so "sie sucht Arbeit" means "she's looking for work," while "sie sucht eine Arbeit" means "she's looking for a job."

"Arbeit" is commonly used in conjunction with verbs like "suchen" ("to look for"), "finden" ("to find"), "annehmen" ("to accept"), or "machen" ("to do"). To indicate that someone is "at" work, the phrase "an der Arbeit" is used. When expressing going "to" work, use either the preposition "zu" ("to") or "an" ("to"), as in: "ich gehe zur Arbeit" or "ich gehe an die Arbeit" ("I'm going to work").

die Arbeitslosigkeit noun unemployment

Details:

unemployment

This is used the same as its English counterpart. Note that the term "unemployment rate" is rendered in German not with this word but instead with the noun form "Arbeitslose" ("unemployed person") built from the adjective "arbeitslos" ("unemployed;" see the grammar note). For example, "Die Arbeitslosenrate in Deutschland ist auf ein Rekordtief gesunken." ("The unemployment rate in Germany has sunk to a record low.")

To express the concept of unemployment in a particular profession (Field) or for a particular group of people, the preposition "unter" ("among," "under") is used. In such cases, the Field is realized with words that refer to people  (e.g. "Ingenieure" ("engineers"), "Jugendlichen" ("youths"), etc.).

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Arbeitslosigkeit im Iran ist im Frühjahr gestiegen.
  2. Die Arbeitslosigkeit fiel im September um 0,1 Punkte auf 3 Prozent.
  3. Weniger Arbeitslosigkeit führt laut einer Studie nicht zu sinkendem Armutsrisiko.
  4. Die Arbeitslosigkeit unter Akademikern ist traditionell niedrig.
  1. The unemployment in Iran rose in the spring.
  2. The unemployment fell in September by 0.1 percent to 3 percent.
  3. Less unemployment leads, according to a study, not to sinking poverty risk.
  4. The unemployment among academics is traditionally low.

Grammar:

Making Nouns from Adjectives

So-called "adjectival nouns" are derived from adjectives. These nouns behave like adjectives in that their endings change depending on the gender, case, and whether one uses a definite article (or der-word, e.g. der, dieser, welcher) or an indefinite article (or ein-word, e.g. eine, meine, ihre).To create  an adjectival noun, simply use the adjective without the noun (with the appropriate article and ending as if the relevant noun were there).
For example, if you want to refer to a good looking person, take an adjective like "schön" ("beautiful," "handsome"), as in "ein schöner Mann," and drop the noun; now you have "ein Schöner" ("a good looking man"). To refer to a woman, change the gender of the article accordingly: "eine schöne Frau" becomes "eine Schöne" ("a good-looking woman"). The endings you will most commonly need to refer to people using adjectival nouns are listed in the chart below. If you would like to go further and apply this grammatical feature more broadly, see Grimm Grammar's explanations of adjective endings for the appropriate forms (after der-wordsafter ein-words, without articles).
Adjective NominativeAccusativeDativeEnglish Translation
verlobtm.der Verlobteden Verlobtendem Verlobtenfiance
 (engaged) ein Verlobtereinen Verlobteneinem Verlobten 
 f.die Verlobtedie Verlobteder Verlobten 
  eine Verlobteeine Verlobteeiner Verlobten 
geliebtm.der Geliebteden Geliebtendem Geliebtenloved one
 (loved) ein Geliebtereinen Geliebteneinem Geliebten 
 f.die Geliebtedie Geliebteder Geliebten 
  eine Geliebteeine Geliebteeiner Geliebten 
altm.der Alteden Altendem Altenold person
 (old) ein Altereinen Alteneinem Alten 
 f.die Altedie Alteder Alten 
  eine Alteeine Alteeiner Alten 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Die Arbeitslosigkeit unter FIELD ist hoch/niedrig.
  1. The unemployment among FIELD is high/low.

Details:

unemployment

This is used the same as its English counterpart. Note that the term "unemployment rate" is rendered in German not with this word but instead with the noun form "Arbeitslose" ("unemployed person") built from the adjective "arbeitslos" ("unemployed;" see the grammar note). For example, "Die Arbeitslosenrate in Deutschland ist auf ein Rekordtief gesunken." ("The unemployment rate in Germany has sunk to a record low.")

To express the concept of unemployment in a particular profession (Field) or for a particular group of people, the preposition "unter" ("among," "under") is used. In such cases, the Field is realized with words that refer to people  (e.g. "Ingenieure" ("engineers"), "Jugendlichen" ("youths"), etc.).

die Arbeitsstelle noun position

Details:

position, lit. work position

This term is used similarly to its English counterpart. It is similar to "der Job" ("the job") and follows similar sentence templates. If there is a distinction, it is that "Arbeitsstelle" is somewhat more tangible and specific than "Job," which can be used more abstractly.

Example Sentences:

  1. Es gibt angenehme Arbeitsstellen im öffentlichen Sektor.
  2. Er verlor immer wieder seine Arbeitsstelle.
  3. Eine Arbeitsstelle als Fahrer oder Kellner wäre ein Riesenschritt vorwärts.
  4. Der junge Mann erzählt von seiner neuen Arbeitsstelle als Wächter in einem Hotel.
  1. There are comfortable positions in the public sector.
  2. He lost ever again his position.
  3. A position as a driver or server would be a giant step forward.
  4. The young man tells of his new position as a watchman in a hotel.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE hat/findet eine Arbeitsstelle.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Arbeitsstelle]
  3. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER]
  4. [Arbeitsstelle als POSITION]
  5. [Arbeitsstelle in FIELD]
  6. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER als POSITION]
  7. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [Arbeitsstelle in FIELD als POSITION]
  9. [Arbeitsstelle bei EMPLOYER in FIELD als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE has/finds a position.
  2. [EMPLOYEE's position]
  3. [position at EMPLOYER]
  4. [position as POSITION]
  5. [position in FIELD]
  6. [position at EMPLOYER as POSITION]
  7. [position at EMPLOYER in FIELD]
  8. [position in FIELD as POSITION]
  9. [position at EMPLOYER in FIELD as POSITION]

Details:

position, lit. work position

This term is used similarly to its English counterpart. It is similar to "der Job" ("the job") and follows similar sentence templates. If there is a distinction, it is that "Arbeitsstelle" is somewhat more tangible and specific than "Job," which can be used more abstractly.

Alternate Forms:

die Arbeitsstellen (pl.)
die Beförderung noun promotion

Details:

promotion

This is used as in English.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach seiner Beförderung zum Chefcoach verdiente er mehr Geld.
  2. Der Verein gab die Beförderung des Jugendkoordinators am Mittwoch bekannt.
  3. Vor ihrer Beförderung ins Kabinett von US-Präsident Barack Obama arbeitete Loretta Lynch als Bundesanwältin in New York.
  1. After his promotion to head coach, he earned more money.
  2. The club announced the promotion of the youth coordinator on Wednesday.
  3. Before her promotion into the cabinet of US President Barack Obama, Loretta Lynch worked as a federal prosecutor in New York.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Beförderung zu POSITION
  2. EMPLOYEEs Beförderung
  3. Beförderung EMPLOYEE.genitive
  1. promotion to POSITION
  2. EMPLOYEE's Beförderung
  3. Beförderung of EMPLOYEE

Details:

promotion

This is used as in English.

Alternate Forms:

die Beförderungen (pl.)
die Karriere noun career

Details:

career

This is used similary to its English counterpart. It refers to the employment path that an Employee follows in life, usually within one Field, often as one Position or a related set of Positions, sometimes for one Employer.

Example Sentences:

  1. Er konnte seine Karriere fortsetzen.
  2. Größter Erfolg seiner Karriere war Olympiasilber mit der Mannschaft 2010 in Vancouver.
  3. Junge Menschen streben nach Karrieren in den Naturwissenschaften.
  4. Auch nach seiner erfolgreichen Karriere als Spieler arbeitete Baur jahrelang beim DHB.
  1. He was able to continue his career.
  2. The biggest success of his career was Olympic silver with the team in 2010 in Vancouver.
  3. Young people aspire to careers in the natural sciences.
  4. Also after his successful career as a player, Baur worked for years at DHB.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE hat eine Karriere.
  2. [EMPLOYEEs Karriere]
  3. [EMPLOYEE.possessive Karriere in FIELD]
  4. [Karriere in FIELD]
  5. [Karriere als POSITION]
  1. EMPLOYEE has a career.
  2. [EYMPLOEE's career]
  3. [EMPLOYEE's career in FIELD]
  4. [career in FIELD]
  5. [career as POSITION]

Details:

career

This is used similary to its English counterpart. It refers to the employment path that an Employee follows in life, usually within one Field, often as one Position or a related set of Positions, sometimes for one Employer.

Alternate Forms:

die Karrieren (pl.)
jobben verb to work, to moonlight, to temp

Details:

to work, to moonlight, to temp

This verb is used to refer to work that is in any way different from the standard 9-5 work an Employee will do as a career. It can refer to moonlighting, to working seasonally, to doing odd jobs, to temping, etc. It is not work that is part of or leads to a "Beruf" or a "Karriere."

Example Sentences:

  1. Nebenbei jobbt Fritz als Model.
  2. In den nächsten zwei Monaten jobbten wir als Fischschuppenabkratzer.
  3. Danach jobbte der 24-jährige bei einer Marketingfirma in Kairo.
  4. Sie macht eine Ausbildung zur Bürokauffrau und jobbt nebenher als Kellnerin.
  5. Ich hätte dann bei einem Callcenter für 11,80 Euro brutto die Stunde gejobbt.
  6. Derweil jobbt er zwanzig Stunden in der Woche als Altenpfleger.
  7. In den Ferien hat er in der Fabrik gejobbt.
  8. In den Ferien habe ich manchmal als Schwesternhelferin im Krankenhaus gejobbt.
  9. Außerdem jobbe ich in einem Restaurant als Empfangsdame.
  1. On the side, Fritz works as a model.
  2. In the next two months, we worked as fish descalers.
  3. After that, the 24 year-old worked at a marketing firm in Cairo.
  4. She is doing a training as an office clerk and is working on the side as a waitress.
  5. I would have worked then at a call center for 11.80 Euros gross per hour.
  6. Meanwhile, he works twenty hours a week as a geriatric nurse.
  7. During the break, he worked in the factory.
  8. During the break, I sometimes worked as nurse's assistant in the hospital.
  9. Besides that, I work in a restaurant as hostess.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE jobbt.
  2. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE jobbt als POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE jobbt für COMPENSATION.
  5. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER als POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYEE jobbt bei EMPLOYER für COMPENSATION.
  8. EMPLOYEE jobbt als POSITION für COMPENSATION.
  1. EMPLOYEE works.
  2. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER.
  3. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION.
  4. EMPLOYEE works for COMPENSATION.
  5. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION.
  6. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER as POSITION for COMPENSATION.
  7. EMPLOYEE works at EMPLOYER for COMPENSATION.
  8. EMPLOYEE works as POSITION for COMPENSATION.

Details:

to work, to moonlight, to temp

This verb is used to refer to work that is in any way different from the standard 9-5 work an Employee will do as a career. It can refer to moonlighting, to working seasonally, to doing odd jobs, to temping, etc. It is not work that is part of or leads to a "Beruf" or a "Karriere."

Alternate Forms:

(er) jobbt, hat gejobbt, jobbte
verdienen verb to earn

Details:

to earn

This verb is relatively narrowly confined to referring to an Employee who earns Compensation. The Compensation is often stated quite directly. Sometimes, however, the Compensation is described with an adverb like "gut" ("well") or some sort of comparative construction like "mehr als" ("more than"). Occasionally, the subject of "verdienen" can be a company, which can fill the Employer role, or in a general way, one might mention what people in a particular Position earn (see the examples).

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Angestellte verdient 2.700 Euro netto im Monat.
  2. Was verdient der Pilot?
  3. Die Mutter verdiente ihren Unterhalt als Wäscherin.
  4. Die Harvard-MBAs verdienten weniger.
  5. Sie hat ihr Geld mit Geschäften auf eBay verdient.
  6. Der Konzern verdiente zwischen Juli und September rund 61 Millionen Euro.
  7. Nach der Ausbildung verdienen Pferdewirte zwischen 1.400 bis 1.800 Euro brutto im Monat.
  1. The employee earns 2,700 Euros net per month.
  2. What does the pilot earn?
  3. The mother earned her living as a laundry woman.
  4. The Harvard MBAs earned less.
  5. She earned her money with businesses on eBay.
  6. The corporation earned between July and September around 61 million Euros.
  7. After the training, horse-grooms earn between 1,400 to 1,800 Euros gross per month.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. EMPLOYEE verdient COMPENSATION.
  2. EMPLOYEE verdient (gut/mehr).
  1. EMPLOYEE earns COMPENSATION.
  2. EMPLOYEE earns (well/more).

Details:

to earn

This verb is relatively narrowly confined to referring to an Employee who earns Compensation. The Compensation is often stated quite directly. Sometimes, however, the Compensation is described with an adverb like "gut" ("well") or some sort of comparative construction like "mehr als" ("more than"). Occasionally, the subject of "verdienen" can be a company, which can fill the Employer role, or in a general way, one might mention what people in a particular Position earn (see the examples).

Alternate Forms:

(er) verdient, hat verdient, verdiente