Frame description

These words describe various perspectives on the commercial transaction scenario, in which a Buyer buys some Goods from a Seller or a Store for some Money or other type of payment.

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Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms

Frame Elements

Frame Element descriptions (on hover):

The Buyer is the person who purchases Goods.

The Seller is the person who sells the Goods. Sometimes, one may use the name of a store to stand for the Seller.

The Goods are the item(s) or service(s) that the Buyer buys from the Seller.

The Money is the amount of money or other form of payment that the Buyer gives to the Seller in exchange for the Goods.

The Store refers to the place or business where buying and selling takes place. In most cases, the Store and Seller FEs are interchangeable.

Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
ausgeben verb to spend

Details:

spend (money)

This expression, literally meaning “give out”, describes paying MONEY for GOODS. Unlike English “spend”, however, “ausgeben” is not used with the object “time”. Instead, German uses the expression “Zeit verbringen” ("spend time").

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich kann leider für ein neues Kleid nicht so viel Geldausgeben.
  2. Wenn wir in diesem Laden einkaufen, gebenwir immer zu viel Geldaus.
  3. Sie hat 10 Eurofür das Buchausgeben.
  1. Unfortunately I can't spendso much money on a new dress.
  2. When we shop in this store, we always spendtoo much money.
  3. Shespent10 Eurosfor the book.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER gibt MONEY aus
  2. BUYER gibt MONEY für GOODS aus
  1. BUYER spends MONEY
  2. BUYER spends MONEY on GOODS

Details:

spend (money)

This expression, literally meaning “give out”, describes paying MONEY for GOODS. Unlike English “spend”, however, “ausgeben” is not used with the object “time”. Instead, German uses the expression “Zeit verbringen” ("spend time").

Alternate Forms:

(er) gibt aus, hat ausgegeben, gab aus
billig adjective cheap

Details:

cheap

This adjective is used just like English "cheap" to describe low prices. It also has the connotation that something is of low quality. It can apply to GOODS or STORES.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Lebensmittel hier sind eigentlich ganz billig.
  2. Er trinkt immer billiges Bier.
  3. In Deutschland ist das Obst billiger als in den USA.
  1. The groceries here are actually quite cheap.
  2. He always drinks cheap beer.
  3. In Germany fruit is cheaper than in the USA.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist billig
  2. STORE ist billig
  3. billig__ GOODS
  1. GOODS is cheap
  2. STORE is cheap
  3. cheap GOODS

Details:

cheap

This adjective is used just like English "cheap" to describe low prices. It also has the connotation that something is of low quality. It can apply to GOODS or STORES.

Alternate Forms:

billiger, am billigsten
das Geschäft noun business, store

Details:

business, store

Like English “business”, this noun can refer to both the more general concept of “business” or to the more concrete “store”.

Example Sentences:

  1. In Deutschland bleiben die Geschäfte am Sonntag zu.
  2. In diesem Geschäft kann man preiswerte Kleider kaufen.
  3. Viele junge Leute machen ihre eigene Geschäfte auf.
  1. In Germany the businesses stay closed on Sunday.
  2. In this store you can buy inexpensive clothes.
  3. Many young people are starting their own businesses.

Details:

business, store

Like English “business”, this noun can refer to both the more general concept of “business” or to the more concrete “store”.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Geschäfte
das Sonderangebot noun sale

Details:

sale, special offer

Like English “sale”, this noun describes GOODS that are being sold for a lower price than usual. To say something is “on sale”, German uses the expression “im Sonderangebot”.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Stereoanlage ist im Sonderangebotunter 100 Euro.
  2. Ich habe das Hemdim Sonderangebot gekauft.
  3. Sie sucht Sonderangebote, wenn sie einkaufen geht.
  1. The stereo is on sale for under 100 Euros.
  2. I bought this shirt on sale.
  3. She looks for sales when she goes shopping.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS sind im Sonderangebot
  2. BUYER kauft GOODS im Sonderangebot
  1. GOODS are on sale
  2. BUYER buys GOODS on sale

Details:

sale, special offer

Like English “sale”, this noun describes GOODS that are being sold for a lower price than usual. To say something is “on sale”, German uses the expression “im Sonderangebot”.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Sonderangebote
der Laden noun store, shop

Details:

store, shop

Like English “store”, this noun refers to places where people can buy things. It typically refers to the concrete location of a business, rather than more abstract aspects of a business (e.g. structure, ownership, profits). “Laden” can also be combined with a preceding noun which describes the type of GOODS that are sold in the store. This is seen in example (3) below, where the noun “Buch” precedes “Laden” in “Buchladen”, referring to a bookstore.

Example Sentences:

  1. In diesem kleinen Laden kann man interessante Bücher kaufen.
  2. Die Läden auf dieser Straße sind sehr teuer.
  3. Sie haben einen neuen Buchladen aufgemacht.
  1. In this little store you can buy interesting books.
  2. The stores on this street are very expensive.
  3. They opened a new book store.

Details:

store, shop

Like English “store”, this noun refers to places where people can buy things. It typically refers to the concrete location of a business, rather than more abstract aspects of a business (e.g. structure, ownership, profits). “Laden” can also be combined with a preceding noun which describes the type of GOODS that are sold in the store. This is seen in example (3) below, where the noun “Buch” precedes “Laden” in “Buchladen”, referring to a bookstore.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Läden
der Preis noun price

Details:

price

This noun is used quite similarly to English "price". However, rather than saying that the price "is" some amount of money, German employs the verb "betragen", 3rd person singular "beträgt", as in "Der Preis beträgt 10 Euro" - "The price is 10 Euros". Also, to say "at a X price" one uses the preposition "zu": "zum guten Preis" - "at a good price".

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Preis des Autos beträgt 2 000 Euro.
  2. In diesem Laden bekommt man gute Qualität zum günstigen Preis.
  3. Sie kaufte das Fahrrad zum Preis von 50 Euro.
  4. Bei Aldi sind die Preise ziemlich niedrig.
  1. The price of the car is 2000 Euros.
  2. In this store one gets good quality for a low price.
  3. She bought the bicycle for the price of 50 Euros.
  4. At Aldi the prices are quite low.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. der Preis beträgt MONEY
  2. der Preis für GOODS
  3. der Preis GOODS.genitive
  4. zum Preis von MONEY
  5. zum billigen/teueren/gleichen/… Preis
  1. the price is MONEY
  2. the price for GOODS
  3. the price of GOODS
  4. at a price of MONEY
  5. for a cheap/an expensive/the same price

Details:

price

This noun is used quite similarly to English "price". However, rather than saying that the price "is" some amount of money, German employs the verb "betragen", 3rd person singular "beträgt", as in "Der Preis beträgt 10 Euro" - "The price is 10 Euros". Also, to say "at a X price" one uses the preposition "zu": "zum guten Preis" - "at a good price".

Alternate Forms:

die Preise (pl.)
die Kosten noun cost

Details:

cost(s)

This noun is very similar to English “cost” and refers to the price one must pay for some GOODS. Grammatically, this noun always occurs in the plural form, so one says “die Kosten sind” and not “die Kosten ist”.

Example Sentences:

  1. In der Großstadt sind die Kosten der Miete sehr hoch.
  2. Seit letztem Jahr haben sie ihre Kosten gesenkt.
  3. Die Kosten für das Studium sind schwer zu bezahlen.
  4. Ich studiere auf Kosten meiner Eltern.
  1. In the big city the costs of rent are very high.
  2. They have decreased their prices in the past year.
  3. The costs for education are hard to pay.
  4. I study at the cost of my parents.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. die Kosten GOODS.genitive
  2. die Kosten für GOODS
  3. auf Kosten BUYER.genitive
  1. the cost of GOODS
  2. the cost for GOODS
  3. at the cost of BUYER

Details:

cost(s)

This noun is very similar to English “cost” and refers to the price one must pay for some GOODS. Grammatically, this noun always occurs in the plural form, so one says “die Kosten sind” and not “die Kosten ist”.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Kosten
die Miete noun rent

Details:

rent

This noun, like English “rent” describes the MONEY that the BUYER pays to use the GOODS for a certain amount of time. To say “pay rent”, German uses the phrase “Miete zahlen”. To say “the rent is 100 Euros”, German uses the verb “betragen”, as in “die Miete beträgt 100 Euro.”

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir zahlen 300 Euro Miete für die Wohnung.
  2. Wenn man mit den Eltern wohnt, muss man keine Miete zahlen.
  3. Die Miete für das Auto beträgt 100 Euro pro Tag.
  1. We pay 300 Euros rent for the apartment.
  2. If you live with your parents, you don't have to pay rent.
  3. The rent for the car costs 100 Euros per day.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. die Miete beträgt MONEY
  2. die Miete für GOODS
  1. the rent is MONEY
  2. the rent for GOODS

Details:

rent

This noun, like English “rent” describes the MONEY that the BUYER pays to use the GOODS for a certain amount of time. To say “pay rent”, German uses the phrase “Miete zahlen”. To say “the rent is 100 Euros”, German uses the verb “betragen”, as in “die Miete beträgt 100 Euro.”

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Mieten
die Rechnung noun bill

Details:

bill

This noun, like English “bill” describes the amount of MONEY that the BUYER is expected to pay. It is used both for abstract conceptions of the amount or for a concrete piece of paper on which the amount is written.

Example Sentences:

  1. Nach dem Essen haben wir um die Rechnung gebeten.
  2. Ich habe die Rechnung für das Sofa verloren.
  3. Er hat für die ganze Familie die Rechnung gezahlt.
  4. Die Rechnung für die Dienste beträgt 150 Euro.
  1. After eating we asked for the bill.
  2. I lost the bill for the sofa.
  3. He paid the bill for the whole family.
  4. The bill for the services amounts to 150 Euros.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. die Rechnung für GOODS
  2. die Rechnung beträgt MONEY
  3. BUYER bittet um die Rechnung
  1. the bill for GOODS
  2. the bill costs MONEY
  3. BUYER asks for the bill

Details:

bill

This noun, like English “bill” describes the amount of MONEY that the BUYER is expected to pay. It is used both for abstract conceptions of the amount or for a concrete piece of paper on which the amount is written.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Rechnungen
einkaufen verb to buy, to shop

Details:

to buy, to shop

This verb can be used for both "to shop" and "to buy", depending on the context it is used in. To describe the activity of shopping in general, one may use the verb "gehen" as a supprt verb ("wir gehen einkaufen" - "we are going shopping"). When it is used with a specific type of Goods object, then it simply means "to buy" ("wir haben das Hemd eingekauft" - "we bought the shirt"). When it is used with a more general or a plural Goods object, then it may either have the shopping or buying interpretation ("wir haben Schuhe eingekauft" - "we bough/shopped for shoes").

To make things easy, it is best to simply use the verb "kaufen" to refer to buying events, and the phrase "einkaufen gehen" to refer to the activity of shopping.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich bin mit meiner Mutter einkaufen gegangen.
  2. Wir kaufen unsere Lebensmittel bei Aldi ein.
  3. Ich kaufe für meine alte Nachbarin ein.
  4. Es ist billiger, in grossen Mengen einzukaufen.
  1. I went shopping with my mother.
  2. We buy our groceries at Aldi.
  3. I go shopping for my old neighbor.
  4. It is cheaper to buy in large amounts.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER kauft ein
  2. BUYER geht einkaufen
  3. BUYER kauft GOODS ein
  4. BUYER kauft GOODS in STORE ein
  5. BUYER kauft GOODS bei SELLER/STORE ein
  1. BUYER shops
  2. BUYER goes shopping
  3. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS
  4. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS in STORE
  5. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS at SELLER/STORE

Details:

to buy, to shop

This verb can be used for both "to shop" and "to buy", depending on the context it is used in. To describe the activity of shopping in general, one may use the verb "gehen" as a supprt verb ("wir gehen einkaufen" - "we are going shopping"). When it is used with a specific type of Goods object, then it simply means "to buy" ("wir haben das Hemd eingekauft" - "we bought the shirt"). When it is used with a more general or a plural Goods object, then it may either have the shopping or buying interpretation ("wir haben Schuhe eingekauft" - "we bough/shopped for shoes").

To make things easy, it is best to simply use the verb "kaufen" to refer to buying events, and the phrase "einkaufen gehen" to refer to the activity of shopping.

Alternate Forms:

(er) kauft ein, kaufte ein, hat eingekauft
günstig adjective inexpensive

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. Unlike the other adjectives for prices, "günstig" generally does not refer to STORES, but only to the prices of GOODS.

Note that this word also has a more general meaning of "convenient" or "favorable" and can thus be used in many other contexts rather than in the Buying and Selling frame.

Example Sentences:

  1. Das Auto war nicht günstig.
  2. Sie hat einen günstigen Flug nach Berlin gefunden.
  3. Ich habe sie gekauft, weil sie so günstig waren.
  1. The car was not inexpensive.
  2. She found an inexpensive ticket to Berlin.
  3. I bought them because they were so inexpensive.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist preiswert
  2. preiswert__ GOODS
  1. GOODS is inexpensive
  2. inexpensive GOODS

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. Unlike the other adjectives for prices, "günstig" generally does not refer to STORES, but only to the prices of GOODS.

Note that this word also has a more general meaning of "convenient" or "favorable" and can thus be used in many other contexts rather than in the Buying and Selling frame.

Alternate Forms:

günstiger, am günstigsten
kaufen verb to buy

Details:

to buy

No significant differences from English "buy".

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich habe das Auto für 2 000 Euro gekauft.
  2. Wir kaufen Lebensmittel bei Aldi.
  3. Meine Freundin hat mir ein neues Hemd gekauft.
  4. Er kauft die Limonade von den Kindern.
  1. I bought the car for 2000 Euros.
  2. We buy groceries at Aldi.
  3. My girlfriend bought me a new shirt.
  4. He buys the lemonade from the children.

Grammar:

Dative Recipient

Many verbs of selling and buying may refer to the Recipient of the Goods (i.e. a person who the BUYER buys GOODS for). The Recipient participant appears in the dative case and typically appears directly after the inflected verb in main clauses (as in 1 and 2) and directly after the subject in subordinate clauses (as in 3 and 4).

  1. Ich kaufe meiner Mutter ein Buch.
  2. Der Mann hat mir sein Auto verkauft.
  3. Wir können in Berlin bleiben, weil meine Tante uns ihre Wohnung mietet.
  4. Seitdem ich meiner Frau die Halskette gekauft habe, ist sie sehr nett zu mir.
  1. I buy my mother a book.
  2. The man sold me his car.
  3. We can stay in Berlin, because my aunt will rent us her apartment.
  4. Since I bought my wife the necklace, she has been very nice to me.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER kauft GOODS.
  2. BUYER kauft GOODS von SELLER.
  3. BUYER kauft GOODS bei SELLER.
  4. BUYER kauft GOODS bei STORE.
  5. BUYER kauft GOODS für MONEY.
  6. BUYER kauft GOODS von SELLER für MONEY.
  1. BUYER buys GOODS.
  2. BUYER buys GOODS from SELLER.
  3. BUYER buys GOODS from SELLER.
  4. BUYER buys GOODS from STORE.
  5. BUYER buys GOODS for MONEY.
  6. BUYER buys GOODS from SELLER for MONEY.

Details:

to buy

No significant differences from English "buy".

Alternate Forms:

(er) hat gekauft, kaufte
kosten verb to cost

Details:

to cost

This verb is used very similarly to English “cost” to refer to the price of some GOODS. In some cases, the BUYER can be expressed in the accusative case, as in English "It cost me ten dollars".

Example Sentences:

  1. Meine Wohnung kostet 300 Euro pro Monat.
  2. Das Fahrrad hat mich 50 Euro gekostet.
  3. Diese Hose ist schön, aber sie kostet zu viel.
  1. My apartment costs 300 Euros per month.
  2. The bicycle cost me 50 Euros.
  3. These pants are very nice, but they cost too much.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS kosten MONEY
  2. GOODS kosten BUYER.accusative MONEY
  1. GOODS cost MONEY
  2. GOODS cost BUYER MONEY

Details:

to cost

This verb is used very similarly to English “cost” to refer to the price of some GOODS. In some cases, the BUYER can be expressed in the accusative case, as in English "It cost me ten dollars".

Alternate Forms:

(er) kostet, hat gekostet, kostete
Kunde(-in) noun customer

Details:

customer

This noun is used just like English “customer” to describe the Buyer at a Store. The masculine version (used for men, not women customers) is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" ending in cases other than nominative. For more, read about masculine weak nouns in Grimm Grammar.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie sind mein erster Kunde, Herr Schmidt.
  2. Die Kunden dieses Geschäfts sind sehr reich.
  3. Wir müssen neue Kunden gewinnen, um den Laden offen zu halten.
  1. You are my first customer, Mr. Schmidt.
  2. The customers of this business are very wealthy.
  3. We have to gain new customers in order to keep the shop open.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with articles (masculine "der" for men, feminine "die" for women) and by adding the ending "-in" to the noun when it refers to a woman. To make a feminine form plural, simply add an additional "-nen," as in "Freundinnen" or "Professorinnen." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish
 der Freunddie Freundin friend 
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [der Kunde STORE.genitive]
  2. Der Kunde kauft GOODS.
  3. Der Kunde kauft GOODS von SELLER/STORE.
  4. Der Verkäufer hilft dem Kunden.
  1. [the customer of STORE]
  2. The customer buys GOODS.
  3. The customer buys GOODS from SELLER/STORE.
  4. The salesperson helps the customer.

Details:

customer

This noun is used just like English “customer” to describe the Buyer at a Store. The masculine version (used for men, not women customers) is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" ending in cases other than nominative. For more, read about masculine weak nouns in Grimm Grammar.

Alternate Forms:

(m.) der Kunde, (f.) die Kundin, (m.pl.) die Kunden, (f.pl.) die Kundinnen
mieten verb to rent

Details:

rent

This verb is similar to English “rent” and describes situations in which a BUYER pays some MONEY to use some GOODS for a certain period of time.

Note that in English “rent” can have either the BUYER or SELLER as subject: in the sentence "He rents his house", the subject "he" can be interpreted as the BUYER (tenant) or the SELLER (landlord). With German “mieten”, however, only the BUYER can be subject. To describe situations in which a SELLER rents (out) something, then German uses the verb “vermieten”.

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir haben auf unserer Reise ein Auto gemietet.
  2. Sie mietet das Haus, weil es zu teuer zu kaufen ist.
  3. Man kann vom Bootshaus Kanus mieten.
  1. We rented a car on our trip.
  2. She rents the house, because it is too expensive to buy.
  3. You can rent canoes from the boathouse.

Grammar:

Dative Recipient

Many verbs of selling and buying may refer to the Recipient of the Goods (i.e. a person who the BUYER buys GOODS for). The Recipient participant appears in the dative case and typically appears directly after the inflected verb in main clauses (as in 1 and 2) and directly after the subject in subordinate clauses (as in 3 and 4).

  1. Ich kaufe meiner Mutter ein Buch.
  2. Der Mann hat mir sein Auto verkauft.
  3. Wir können in Berlin bleiben, weil meine Tante uns ihre Wohnung mietet.
  4. Seitdem ich meiner Frau die Halskette gekauft habe, ist sie sehr nett zu mir.
  1. I buy my mother a book.
  2. The man sold me his car.
  3. We can stay in Berlin, because my aunt will rent us her apartment.
  4. Since I bought my wife the necklace, she has been very nice to me.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER mietet GOODS
  2. BUYER mietet GOODS für MONEY
  3. BUYER mietet GOODS von SELLER
  1. BUYER rents GOODS
  2. BUYER rents GOODS for MONEY
  3. BUYER rents GOODS from SELLER

Details:

rent

This verb is similar to English “rent” and describes situations in which a BUYER pays some MONEY to use some GOODS for a certain period of time.

Note that in English “rent” can have either the BUYER or SELLER as subject: in the sentence "He rents his house", the subject "he" can be interpreted as the BUYER (tenant) or the SELLER (landlord). With German “mieten”, however, only the BUYER can be subject. To describe situations in which a SELLER rents (out) something, then German uses the verb “vermieten”.

Alternate Forms:

(er) mietet, mietete, hat gemietet
preiswert adjective inexpensive

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective literally means "price-worthy" and is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive compared to their quality or other similar GOODS. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. In addition to describing inexpensive GOODS, it can also refer to STORES with good prices.

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir haben in einem preiswerten Restaurant gegessen.
  2. Die Produkte in diesem Laden sind nicht preiswert.
  3. Es gibt preiswerte Wohnungen in dieser Gegend.
  1. We ate in an inexpensive restaurant.
  2. The products in this store are not inexpensive.
  3. There are inexpensive apartments in this area.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist preiswert
  2. STORE ist preiswert
  3. preiswert__ GOODS
  4. preiswert__ STORE
  1. GOODS is inexpensive
  2. STORE is inexpensive
  3. inexpensive GOODS
  4. inexpensive STORE

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective literally means "price-worthy" and is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive compared to their quality or other similar GOODS. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. In addition to describing inexpensive GOODS, it can also refer to STORES with good prices.

Alternate Forms:

preiswerter, am preiswertesten
teuer adjective expensive

Details:

expensive

"Teuer" is used just like English "expensive" to describe high prices. It can apply to GOODS with high prices or STORES that have high prices.

Note that when "teuer" appears with a suffix that begins with a vowel, it drops the second -e- : "teurer", "teures", "teuren"

Example Sentences:

  1. Das Auto war gar nicht teuer.
  2. Berühmte Schauspieler kaufen Kleider in teueren Läden.
  3. Ich habe ein sehr teueres Hemd gekauft.
  1. The car was not expensive at all.
  2. Famous actors buy clothes in expensive stores.
  3. I bought an expensive shirt.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist teuer
  2. STORE ist teuer
  3. teuer__ GOODS
  4. teuer__ STORE
  1. GOODS is expensive
  2. STORE is expensive
  3. expensive GOODS
  4. expensive STORE

Details:

expensive

"Teuer" is used just like English "expensive" to describe high prices. It can apply to GOODS with high prices or STORES that have high prices.

Note that when "teuer" appears with a suffix that begins with a vowel, it drops the second -e- : "teurer", "teures", "teuren"

Alternate Forms:

teurer, am teuersten
verkaufen verb to sell

Details:

to sell

The Seller is in nominative case, the Goods are in accusative case. When the Buyer is mentioned, it is either in dative case preceding the Goods, or it occurs with the preposition "an" in accusative case and follows the Goods. With "verkaufen", the Seller can be either a person or a Store.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich habe mein Auto für 2 000 Euro verkauft.
  2. Er verkaufte mir das Fahrrad für 50 Euro.
  3. Dieser Laden verkauft nur Bioprodukte.
  4. Volkswagen verkauft jährlich tausende Fahrzeuge an die USA.
  1. I sold my car for 2000 Euros.
  2. He sold me the bike for 50 Euros.
  3. This store only sells organic products.
  4. Volkswagen sells thousands of vehicles to the USA each year.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SELLER verkauft GOODS
  2. SELLER verkauft GOODS für MONEY
  3. SELLER verkauft BUYER.dative GOODS
  4. SELLER verkauft GOODS an BUYER.accusative
  1. SELLER sells GOODS
  2. SELLER sells GOODS for MONEY
  3. SELLER sells BUYER GOODS
  4. SELLER sells GOODS to BUYER

Details:

to sell

The Seller is in nominative case, the Goods are in accusative case. When the Buyer is mentioned, it is either in dative case preceding the Goods, or it occurs with the preposition "an" in accusative case and follows the Goods. With "verkaufen", the Seller can be either a person or a Store.

Alternate Forms:

(er) verkauft, verkauft, verkaufte
Verkäufer(in) noun seller, salesperson

Details:

seller, salesperson

This noun is the prototypical incarnation of the Seller frame element. It is used generally to refer to people who work in sales, to vendors, and to sellers in general.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Verkäuferin arbeitet den ganzen Tag.
  2. Der Verkäufer hilft dem Kunden.
  3. Die Kundin fragte den Verkäufer nach der Herkunft der Seide.
  1. The saleswoman works all day.
  2. The salesman helps the customer.
  3. The (female) customer asked the salesman for the origin of the silk.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with articles (masculine "der" for men, feminine "die" for women) and by adding the ending "-in" to the noun when it refers to a woman. To make a feminine form plural, simply add an additional "-nen," as in "Freundinnen" or "Professorinnen." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish
 der Freunddie Freundin friend 
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Ein Verkäufer verkauft BUYER GOODS.
  2. BUYER kauft GOODS von dem Verkäufer.
  1. A salesperson sells BUYER GOODS.
  2. BUYER buys GOODS from the salesperson.

Details:

seller, salesperson

This noun is the prototypical incarnation of the Seller frame element. It is used generally to refer to people who work in sales, to vendors, and to sellers in general.

Alternate Forms:

(m.) der Verkäufer, (f.) die Verkäuferin, (m.pl.) die Verkäufer, (f.pl.) die Verkäuferinnen
vermieten verb to rent

Details:

rent (out)

This verb describes situations in which a Seller rents out some Goods to a Buyer for a specified amount of time. “Vermieten” describes the renting scenario from the perspective of the Seller, which must be the subject of the verb. To describe situations in which a Buyer rents something, German uses the verb “mieten”.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie vermietet ihr Haus an Studenten.
  2. Er vermietet das zweite Stock seines Hauses für 400 Euro im Monat.
  3. Ich bin froh, dass ich meine Wohnung vermieten kann.
  1. She rents out her house to students.
  2. He is renting out the third floor of his house for 400 Euros per month.
  3. I am happy that I can rent out my apartment.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SELLER vermietet GOODS
  2. SELLER vermietet GOODS für MONEY
  3. SELLER vermietet GOODS an BUYER
  1. SELLER rents GOODS
  2. SELLER rents GOODS for MONEY
  3. SELLER rents GOODS to BUYER

Details:

rent (out)

This verb describes situations in which a Seller rents out some Goods to a Buyer for a specified amount of time. “Vermieten” describes the renting scenario from the perspective of the Seller, which must be the subject of the verb. To describe situations in which a Buyer rents something, German uses the verb “mieten”.

Alternate Forms:

(er) vermietet, hat vermietet, vermietete
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
verkaufen verb to sell

Details:

to sell

The Seller is in nominative case, the Goods are in accusative case. When the Buyer is mentioned, it is either in dative case preceding the Goods, or it occurs with the preposition "an" in accusative case and follows the Goods. With "verkaufen", the Seller can be either a person or a Store.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich habe mein Auto für 2 000 Euro verkauft.
  2. Er verkaufte mir das Fahrrad für 50 Euro.
  3. Dieser Laden verkauft nur Bioprodukte.
  4. Volkswagen verkauft jährlich tausende Fahrzeuge an die USA.
  1. I sold my car for 2000 Euros.
  2. He sold me the bike for 50 Euros.
  3. This store only sells organic products.
  4. Volkswagen sells thousands of vehicles to the USA each year.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SELLER verkauft GOODS
  2. SELLER verkauft GOODS für MONEY
  3. SELLER verkauft BUYER.dative GOODS
  4. SELLER verkauft GOODS an BUYER.accusative
  1. SELLER sells GOODS
  2. SELLER sells GOODS for MONEY
  3. SELLER sells BUYER GOODS
  4. SELLER sells GOODS to BUYER

Details:

to sell

The Seller is in nominative case, the Goods are in accusative case. When the Buyer is mentioned, it is either in dative case preceding the Goods, or it occurs with the preposition "an" in accusative case and follows the Goods. With "verkaufen", the Seller can be either a person or a Store.

Alternate Forms:

(er) verkauft, verkauft, verkaufte
Verkäufer(in) noun seller, salesperson

Details:

seller, salesperson

This noun is the prototypical incarnation of the Seller frame element. It is used generally to refer to people who work in sales, to vendors, and to sellers in general.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Verkäuferin arbeitet den ganzen Tag.
  2. Der Verkäufer hilft dem Kunden.
  3. Die Kundin fragte den Verkäufer nach der Herkunft der Seide.
  1. The saleswoman works all day.
  2. The salesman helps the customer.
  3. The (female) customer asked the salesman for the origin of the silk.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with articles (masculine "der" for men, feminine "die" for women) and by adding the ending "-in" to the noun when it refers to a woman. To make a feminine form plural, simply add an additional "-nen," as in "Freundinnen" or "Professorinnen." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish
 der Freunddie Freundin friend 
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Ein Verkäufer verkauft BUYER GOODS.
  2. BUYER kauft GOODS von dem Verkäufer.
  1. A salesperson sells BUYER GOODS.
  2. BUYER buys GOODS from the salesperson.

Details:

seller, salesperson

This noun is the prototypical incarnation of the Seller frame element. It is used generally to refer to people who work in sales, to vendors, and to sellers in general.

Alternate Forms:

(m.) der Verkäufer, (f.) die Verkäuferin, (m.pl.) die Verkäufer, (f.pl.) die Verkäuferinnen
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
einkaufen verb to buy, to shop

Details:

to buy, to shop

This verb can be used for both "to shop" and "to buy", depending on the context it is used in. To describe the activity of shopping in general, one may use the verb "gehen" as a supprt verb ("wir gehen einkaufen" - "we are going shopping"). When it is used with a specific type of Goods object, then it simply means "to buy" ("wir haben das Hemd eingekauft" - "we bought the shirt"). When it is used with a more general or a plural Goods object, then it may either have the shopping or buying interpretation ("wir haben Schuhe eingekauft" - "we bough/shopped for shoes").

To make things easy, it is best to simply use the verb "kaufen" to refer to buying events, and the phrase "einkaufen gehen" to refer to the activity of shopping.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich bin mit meiner Mutter einkaufen gegangen.
  2. Wir kaufen unsere Lebensmittel bei Aldi ein.
  3. Ich kaufe für meine alte Nachbarin ein.
  4. Es ist billiger, in grossen Mengen einzukaufen.
  1. I went shopping with my mother.
  2. We buy our groceries at Aldi.
  3. I go shopping for my old neighbor.
  4. It is cheaper to buy in large amounts.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER kauft ein
  2. BUYER geht einkaufen
  3. BUYER kauft GOODS ein
  4. BUYER kauft GOODS in STORE ein
  5. BUYER kauft GOODS bei SELLER/STORE ein
  1. BUYER shops
  2. BUYER goes shopping
  3. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS
  4. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS in STORE
  5. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS at SELLER/STORE

Details:

to buy, to shop

This verb can be used for both "to shop" and "to buy", depending on the context it is used in. To describe the activity of shopping in general, one may use the verb "gehen" as a supprt verb ("wir gehen einkaufen" - "we are going shopping"). When it is used with a specific type of Goods object, then it simply means "to buy" ("wir haben das Hemd eingekauft" - "we bought the shirt"). When it is used with a more general or a plural Goods object, then it may either have the shopping or buying interpretation ("wir haben Schuhe eingekauft" - "we bough/shopped for shoes").

To make things easy, it is best to simply use the verb "kaufen" to refer to buying events, and the phrase "einkaufen gehen" to refer to the activity of shopping.

Alternate Forms:

(er) kauft ein, kaufte ein, hat eingekauft
kaufen verb to buy

Details:

to buy

No significant differences from English "buy".

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich habe das Auto für 2 000 Euro gekauft.
  2. Wir kaufen Lebensmittel bei Aldi.
  3. Meine Freundin hat mir ein neues Hemd gekauft.
  4. Er kauft die Limonade von den Kindern.
  1. I bought the car for 2000 Euros.
  2. We buy groceries at Aldi.
  3. My girlfriend bought me a new shirt.
  4. He buys the lemonade from the children.

Grammar:

Dative Recipient

Many verbs of selling and buying may refer to the Recipient of the Goods (i.e. a person who the BUYER buys GOODS for). The Recipient participant appears in the dative case and typically appears directly after the inflected verb in main clauses (as in 1 and 2) and directly after the subject in subordinate clauses (as in 3 and 4).

  1. Ich kaufe meiner Mutter ein Buch.
  2. Der Mann hat mir sein Auto verkauft.
  3. Wir können in Berlin bleiben, weil meine Tante uns ihre Wohnung mietet.
  4. Seitdem ich meiner Frau die Halskette gekauft habe, ist sie sehr nett zu mir.
  1. I buy my mother a book.
  2. The man sold me his car.
  3. We can stay in Berlin, because my aunt will rent us her apartment.
  4. Since I bought my wife the necklace, she has been very nice to me.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER kauft GOODS.
  2. BUYER kauft GOODS von SELLER.
  3. BUYER kauft GOODS bei SELLER.
  4. BUYER kauft GOODS bei STORE.
  5. BUYER kauft GOODS für MONEY.
  6. BUYER kauft GOODS von SELLER für MONEY.
  1. BUYER buys GOODS.
  2. BUYER buys GOODS from SELLER.
  3. BUYER buys GOODS from SELLER.
  4. BUYER buys GOODS from STORE.
  5. BUYER buys GOODS for MONEY.
  6. BUYER buys GOODS from SELLER for MONEY.

Details:

to buy

No significant differences from English "buy".

Alternate Forms:

(er) hat gekauft, kaufte
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
das Geschäft noun business, store

Details:

business, store

Like English “business”, this noun can refer to both the more general concept of “business” or to the more concrete “store”.

Example Sentences:

  1. In Deutschland bleiben die Geschäfte am Sonntag zu.
  2. In diesem Geschäft kann man preiswerte Kleider kaufen.
  3. Viele junge Leute machen ihre eigene Geschäfte auf.
  1. In Germany the businesses stay closed on Sunday.
  2. In this store you can buy inexpensive clothes.
  3. Many young people are starting their own businesses.

Details:

business, store

Like English “business”, this noun can refer to both the more general concept of “business” or to the more concrete “store”.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Geschäfte
das Sonderangebot noun sale

Details:

sale, special offer

Like English “sale”, this noun describes GOODS that are being sold for a lower price than usual. To say something is “on sale”, German uses the expression “im Sonderangebot”.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Stereoanlage ist im Sonderangebotunter 100 Euro.
  2. Ich habe das Hemdim Sonderangebot gekauft.
  3. Sie sucht Sonderangebote, wenn sie einkaufen geht.
  1. The stereo is on sale for under 100 Euros.
  2. I bought this shirt on sale.
  3. She looks for sales when she goes shopping.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS sind im Sonderangebot
  2. BUYER kauft GOODS im Sonderangebot
  1. GOODS are on sale
  2. BUYER buys GOODS on sale

Details:

sale, special offer

Like English “sale”, this noun describes GOODS that are being sold for a lower price than usual. To say something is “on sale”, German uses the expression “im Sonderangebot”.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Sonderangebote
der Laden noun store, shop

Details:

store, shop

Like English “store”, this noun refers to places where people can buy things. It typically refers to the concrete location of a business, rather than more abstract aspects of a business (e.g. structure, ownership, profits). “Laden” can also be combined with a preceding noun which describes the type of GOODS that are sold in the store. This is seen in example (3) below, where the noun “Buch” precedes “Laden” in “Buchladen”, referring to a bookstore.

Example Sentences:

  1. In diesem kleinen Laden kann man interessante Bücher kaufen.
  2. Die Läden auf dieser Straße sind sehr teuer.
  3. Sie haben einen neuen Buchladen aufgemacht.
  1. In this little store you can buy interesting books.
  2. The stores on this street are very expensive.
  3. They opened a new book store.

Details:

store, shop

Like English “store”, this noun refers to places where people can buy things. It typically refers to the concrete location of a business, rather than more abstract aspects of a business (e.g. structure, ownership, profits). “Laden” can also be combined with a preceding noun which describes the type of GOODS that are sold in the store. This is seen in example (3) below, where the noun “Buch” precedes “Laden” in “Buchladen”, referring to a bookstore.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Läden
einkaufen verb to buy, to shop

Details:

to buy, to shop

This verb can be used for both "to shop" and "to buy", depending on the context it is used in. To describe the activity of shopping in general, one may use the verb "gehen" as a supprt verb ("wir gehen einkaufen" - "we are going shopping"). When it is used with a specific type of Goods object, then it simply means "to buy" ("wir haben das Hemd eingekauft" - "we bought the shirt"). When it is used with a more general or a plural Goods object, then it may either have the shopping or buying interpretation ("wir haben Schuhe eingekauft" - "we bough/shopped for shoes").

To make things easy, it is best to simply use the verb "kaufen" to refer to buying events, and the phrase "einkaufen gehen" to refer to the activity of shopping.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich bin mit meiner Mutter einkaufen gegangen.
  2. Wir kaufen unsere Lebensmittel bei Aldi ein.
  3. Ich kaufe für meine alte Nachbarin ein.
  4. Es ist billiger, in grossen Mengen einzukaufen.
  1. I went shopping with my mother.
  2. We buy our groceries at Aldi.
  3. I go shopping for my old neighbor.
  4. It is cheaper to buy in large amounts.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. BUYER kauft ein
  2. BUYER geht einkaufen
  3. BUYER kauft GOODS ein
  4. BUYER kauft GOODS in STORE ein
  5. BUYER kauft GOODS bei SELLER/STORE ein
  1. BUYER shops
  2. BUYER goes shopping
  3. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS
  4. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS in STORE
  5. BUYER buys/shops for GOODS at SELLER/STORE

Details:

to buy, to shop

This verb can be used for both "to shop" and "to buy", depending on the context it is used in. To describe the activity of shopping in general, one may use the verb "gehen" as a supprt verb ("wir gehen einkaufen" - "we are going shopping"). When it is used with a specific type of Goods object, then it simply means "to buy" ("wir haben das Hemd eingekauft" - "we bought the shirt"). When it is used with a more general or a plural Goods object, then it may either have the shopping or buying interpretation ("wir haben Schuhe eingekauft" - "we bough/shopped for shoes").

To make things easy, it is best to simply use the verb "kaufen" to refer to buying events, and the phrase "einkaufen gehen" to refer to the activity of shopping.

Alternate Forms:

(er) kauft ein, kaufte ein, hat eingekauft
Kunde(-in) noun customer

Details:

customer

This noun is used just like English “customer” to describe the Buyer at a Store. The masculine version (used for men, not women customers) is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" ending in cases other than nominative. For more, read about masculine weak nouns in Grimm Grammar.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie sind mein erster Kunde, Herr Schmidt.
  2. Die Kunden dieses Geschäfts sind sehr reich.
  3. Wir müssen neue Kunden gewinnen, um den Laden offen zu halten.
  1. You are my first customer, Mr. Schmidt.
  2. The customers of this business are very wealthy.
  3. We have to gain new customers in order to keep the shop open.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with articles (masculine "der" for men, feminine "die" for women) and by adding the ending "-in" to the noun when it refers to a woman. To make a feminine form plural, simply add an additional "-nen," as in "Freundinnen" or "Professorinnen." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish
 der Freunddie Freundin friend 
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [der Kunde STORE.genitive]
  2. Der Kunde kauft GOODS.
  3. Der Kunde kauft GOODS von SELLER/STORE.
  4. Der Verkäufer hilft dem Kunden.
  1. [the customer of STORE]
  2. The customer buys GOODS.
  3. The customer buys GOODS from SELLER/STORE.
  4. The salesperson helps the customer.

Details:

customer

This noun is used just like English “customer” to describe the Buyer at a Store. The masculine version (used for men, not women customers) is a weak noun, which means that it gets an extra "n" ending in cases other than nominative. For more, read about masculine weak nouns in Grimm Grammar.

Alternate Forms:

(m.) der Kunde, (f.) die Kundin, (m.pl.) die Kunden, (f.pl.) die Kundinnen
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
billig adjective cheap

Details:

cheap

This adjective is used just like English "cheap" to describe low prices. It also has the connotation that something is of low quality. It can apply to GOODS or STORES.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Lebensmittel hier sind eigentlich ganz billig.
  2. Er trinkt immer billiges Bier.
  3. In Deutschland ist das Obst billiger als in den USA.
  1. The groceries here are actually quite cheap.
  2. He always drinks cheap beer.
  3. In Germany fruit is cheaper than in the USA.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist billig
  2. STORE ist billig
  3. billig__ GOODS
  1. GOODS is cheap
  2. STORE is cheap
  3. cheap GOODS

Details:

cheap

This adjective is used just like English "cheap" to describe low prices. It also has the connotation that something is of low quality. It can apply to GOODS or STORES.

Alternate Forms:

billiger, am billigsten
der Preis noun price

Details:

price

This noun is used quite similarly to English "price". However, rather than saying that the price "is" some amount of money, German employs the verb "betragen", 3rd person singular "beträgt", as in "Der Preis beträgt 10 Euro" - "The price is 10 Euros". Also, to say "at a X price" one uses the preposition "zu": "zum guten Preis" - "at a good price".

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Preis des Autos beträgt 2 000 Euro.
  2. In diesem Laden bekommt man gute Qualität zum günstigen Preis.
  3. Sie kaufte das Fahrrad zum Preis von 50 Euro.
  4. Bei Aldi sind die Preise ziemlich niedrig.
  1. The price of the car is 2000 Euros.
  2. In this store one gets good quality for a low price.
  3. She bought the bicycle for the price of 50 Euros.
  4. At Aldi the prices are quite low.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. der Preis beträgt MONEY
  2. der Preis für GOODS
  3. der Preis GOODS.genitive
  4. zum Preis von MONEY
  5. zum billigen/teueren/gleichen/… Preis
  1. the price is MONEY
  2. the price for GOODS
  3. the price of GOODS
  4. at a price of MONEY
  5. for a cheap/an expensive/the same price

Details:

price

This noun is used quite similarly to English "price". However, rather than saying that the price "is" some amount of money, German employs the verb "betragen", 3rd person singular "beträgt", as in "Der Preis beträgt 10 Euro" - "The price is 10 Euros". Also, to say "at a X price" one uses the preposition "zu": "zum guten Preis" - "at a good price".

Alternate Forms:

die Preise (pl.)
die Kosten noun cost

Details:

cost(s)

This noun is very similar to English “cost” and refers to the price one must pay for some GOODS. Grammatically, this noun always occurs in the plural form, so one says “die Kosten sind” and not “die Kosten ist”.

Example Sentences:

  1. In der Großstadt sind die Kosten der Miete sehr hoch.
  2. Seit letztem Jahr haben sie ihre Kosten gesenkt.
  3. Die Kosten für das Studium sind schwer zu bezahlen.
  4. Ich studiere auf Kosten meiner Eltern.
  1. In the big city the costs of rent are very high.
  2. They have decreased their prices in the past year.
  3. The costs for education are hard to pay.
  4. I study at the cost of my parents.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. die Kosten GOODS.genitive
  2. die Kosten für GOODS
  3. auf Kosten BUYER.genitive
  1. the cost of GOODS
  2. the cost for GOODS
  3. at the cost of BUYER

Details:

cost(s)

This noun is very similar to English “cost” and refers to the price one must pay for some GOODS. Grammatically, this noun always occurs in the plural form, so one says “die Kosten sind” and not “die Kosten ist”.

Alternate Forms:

(pl.) die Kosten
günstig adjective inexpensive

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. Unlike the other adjectives for prices, "günstig" generally does not refer to STORES, but only to the prices of GOODS.

Note that this word also has a more general meaning of "convenient" or "favorable" and can thus be used in many other contexts rather than in the Buying and Selling frame.

Example Sentences:

  1. Das Auto war nicht günstig.
  2. Sie hat einen günstigen Flug nach Berlin gefunden.
  3. Ich habe sie gekauft, weil sie so günstig waren.
  1. The car was not inexpensive.
  2. She found an inexpensive ticket to Berlin.
  3. I bought them because they were so inexpensive.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist preiswert
  2. preiswert__ GOODS
  1. GOODS is inexpensive
  2. inexpensive GOODS

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. Unlike the other adjectives for prices, "günstig" generally does not refer to STORES, but only to the prices of GOODS.

Note that this word also has a more general meaning of "convenient" or "favorable" and can thus be used in many other contexts rather than in the Buying and Selling frame.

Alternate Forms:

günstiger, am günstigsten
kosten verb to cost

Details:

to cost

This verb is used very similarly to English “cost” to refer to the price of some GOODS. In some cases, the BUYER can be expressed in the accusative case, as in English "It cost me ten dollars".

Example Sentences:

  1. Meine Wohnung kostet 300 Euro pro Monat.
  2. Das Fahrrad hat mich 50 Euro gekostet.
  3. Diese Hose ist schön, aber sie kostet zu viel.
  1. My apartment costs 300 Euros per month.
  2. The bicycle cost me 50 Euros.
  3. These pants are very nice, but they cost too much.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS kosten MONEY
  2. GOODS kosten BUYER.accusative MONEY
  1. GOODS cost MONEY
  2. GOODS cost BUYER MONEY

Details:

to cost

This verb is used very similarly to English “cost” to refer to the price of some GOODS. In some cases, the BUYER can be expressed in the accusative case, as in English "It cost me ten dollars".

Alternate Forms:

(er) kostet, hat gekostet, kostete
preiswert adjective inexpensive

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective literally means "price-worthy" and is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive compared to their quality or other similar GOODS. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. In addition to describing inexpensive GOODS, it can also refer to STORES with good prices.

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir haben in einem preiswerten Restaurant gegessen.
  2. Die Produkte in diesem Laden sind nicht preiswert.
  3. Es gibt preiswerte Wohnungen in dieser Gegend.
  1. We ate in an inexpensive restaurant.
  2. The products in this store are not inexpensive.
  3. There are inexpensive apartments in this area.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist preiswert
  2. STORE ist preiswert
  3. preiswert__ GOODS
  4. preiswert__ STORE
  1. GOODS is inexpensive
  2. STORE is inexpensive
  3. inexpensive GOODS
  4. inexpensive STORE

Details:

inexpensive

This adjective literally means "price-worthy" and is used to describe GOODS that are inexpensive compared to their quality or other similar GOODS. It does not have the negative connotations associated with cheap. In addition to describing inexpensive GOODS, it can also refer to STORES with good prices.

Alternate Forms:

preiswerter, am preiswertesten
teuer adjective expensive

Details:

expensive

"Teuer" is used just like English "expensive" to describe high prices. It can apply to GOODS with high prices or STORES that have high prices.

Note that when "teuer" appears with a suffix that begins with a vowel, it drops the second -e- : "teurer", "teures", "teuren"

Example Sentences:

  1. Das Auto war gar nicht teuer.
  2. Berühmte Schauspieler kaufen Kleider in teueren Läden.
  3. Ich habe ein sehr teueres Hemd gekauft.
  1. The car was not expensive at all.
  2. Famous actors buy clothes in expensive stores.
  3. I bought an expensive shirt.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. GOODS ist teuer
  2. STORE ist teuer
  3. teuer__ GOODS
  4. teuer__ STORE
  1. GOODS is expensive
  2. STORE is expensive
  3. expensive GOODS
  4. expensive STORE

Details:

expensive

"Teuer" is used just like English "expensive" to describe high prices. It can apply to GOODS with high prices or STORES that have high prices.

Note that when "teuer" appears with a suffix that begins with a vowel, it drops the second -e- : "teurer", "teures", "teuren"

Alternate Forms:

teurer, am teuersten