Frame description

A Sleeper enters a state of unconsciousness, remains in this state for some amount of time, and then returns to full wakeful consciousness. This process includes the following steps: falling asleep, sleeping, waking up and getting up.

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Examples
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Frame Elements

Frame Element descriptions (on hover):

The sleeping entity.

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dösen verb doze

Details:

Used like its English equivalent to describe a light sleep.

Example Sentences:

  1. Jeden Morgen döse ich auf dem Bus zur Uni.
  2. Sigmund döst immer, wenn er fernsieht.
  3. Das kleine Baby liegt im Kinderwagen und döst.
  1. Every morning, I doze on the bus to the university.
  2. Sigmund dozes always, when he watches TV.
  3. The little baby is lying in the stroller and dozing.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER döst.
  1. SLEEPER dozes.

Details:

Used like its English equivalent to describe a light sleep.

Alternate Forms:

(er) döst, hat gedöst, döste
einschlafen verb fall asleep

Details:

This separable prefix verb is used like English "to fall asleep", and is not to be confused with "verschlafen" ("to sleep in").

Example Sentences:

  1. Der alte Mann schlief vor dem Fernseher ein.
  2. Wann bist du eingeschlafen?
  3. Emilie schläft während der Woche um 21 Uhr ein.
  1. The old man fell asleep in front of the TV.
  2. When did you fall asleep?
  3. Emilie falls asleep during the week at 9pm.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER schläft ein.
  1. SLEEPER falls asleep.

Details:

This separable prefix verb is used like English "to fall asleep", and is not to be confused with "verschlafen" ("to sleep in").

Alternate Forms:

(er) schläft ein, ist eingeschlafen, schlief ein
müde adjective tired

Details:

Used like its English counterpart. When placed directly before a noun, normal adjective ending rules apply, but there is no need to add an additional "e".

See Grimm Grammar for details: https://coerll.utexas.edu/gg/gr/adj_01.html.

Example Sentences:

  1. Studenten sind immer müde, weil sie nicht genug schlafen.
  2. Was ist mit dir los? Bist dumüde?
  3. Ein müder Wanderer steigt den Berg hinab.
  1. Students are always tired, because they don't sleep enough.
  2. What's the matter? Are you tired?
  3. A tired wanderer is climbing down the mountain.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER ist müde
  2. SLEEPER wird müde
  3. ein müde- SLEEPER

 

  1. SLEEPER is tired
  2. SLEEPER becomes/gets tired
  3. a tired SLEEPER

Details:

Used like its English counterpart. When placed directly before a noun, normal adjective ending rules apply, but there is no need to add an additional "e".

See Grimm Grammar for details: https://coerll.utexas.edu/gg/gr/adj_01.html.

schläfrig adjective sleepy

Details:

Used like its English counterpart

Example Sentences:

  1. Kevin ist zu schläfrig, einen ganzen Film anzusehen.
  2. Bist du nicht schläfrigEs ist schon Mitternacht!
  3. Das Kind sitzt ruhig neben seiner Mutter und sieht mit schläfrigen Augen aus dem Fenster.
  1. Kevin is too sleepy to watch a whole movie.
  2. Are you not sleepy? It is already midnight!
  3. The child sits quietly next to its mother and looks with sleepy eyes out the window.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER ist schläfrig.
  2. ein schläfrig- SLEEPER
  1. SLEEPER is sleepy.
  2. a sleepy SLEEPER

Details:

Used like its English counterpart

Details
Examples
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bewusstlos adjective unconscious

Details:

Used like its English equivalent.

Example Sentences:

  1. Pascal konnte kaum stehen, dann wurde sie momentan bewusstlos.
  2. Zwei Tage nach dem Unfall lag Timo noch bewusstlos im Krankenhaus.
  3. Beim Boxkampf schlägt Torben seinen Gegner bewusstlos.
  1. Pascal could hardly stand, then she became momentarily unconscious.
  2. Two days after the accident, Timo still lay unconscious in the hospital.
  3. In the boxing match, Torben beats his opponent unconscious.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER ist/wird bewusstlos.
  1. SLEEPER is/becomes unconscious.

Details:

Used like its English equivalent.

das Bewusstsein verlieren construction lose consciousness

Details:

This expression exists in both German and English.

Example Sentences:

  1. Wenn ich den Atem anhalte, verliere ich das Bewusstsein.
  2. Jonas war so schwer verletzt, dass er das Bewusstsein verloren hat.
  3. Beim Fußballspiel war es so heiß, das ein Fan das Bewusstsein verlor.
  1. If I hold my breath, I lose consciousness.
  2. Jonas was so badly hurt, that he lost consciousness.
  3. At the soccer game, it was so hot that a fan lost consciousness.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER verliert das Bewusstsein.
  1. SLEEPER loses consciousness.

Details:

This expression exists in both German and English.

Alternate Forms:

er verliert das Bewusstsein, hat das Bewusstsein verloren, verlor das Bewusstsein
in Ohnmacht fallen construction faint

Details:

Used like English "faint", this construction's literal meaning is "to fall into powerlessness."

Example Sentences:

  1. Vivien hatte so viel Angst, dass sie in Ohnmacht gefallen ist.
  2. Ole ist zum Arzt gegangen, weil er am vorigen Tag in Ohnmacht gefallen war.
  3. Seitdem Hendrik in Ohnmacht fiel, fühlt er sich schwach.
  1. Vivien was so afraid that she fainted.
  2. Ole went to the doctor, because he had fainted on the previous day.
  3. Since Hendrik fainted, he feels weak.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER fällt in Ohnmacht.
  1. SLEEPER faints.

Details:

Used like English "faint", this construction's literal meaning is "to fall into powerlessness."

Alternate Forms:

(er) fällt in Ohnmacht, ist in Ohnmacht gefallen, fiel in Ohnmacht
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Examples
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ausschlafen verb sleep in, sleep off

Details:

Used reflexively ("sich ausschlafen", with the accusative reflexive pronoun), this separable prefix verb means "to sleep in" (e.g. "Ich schlafe mich am Samstag aus" - "I sleep in on Saturday"), but when it's used with a direct object, it means to sleep something off (e.g. "Ich habe meinen Jetlag ausgeschlafen" - "I slept off my jetlag"). 

Example Sentences:

  1. Als Student schlief sich Lukas an den Wochenenden aus.
  2. Heute Morgen habe ich mich gut ausgeschlafen.
  3. Meine Arbeit war sehr anstrengend diese Woche, darum muss ich mich bald ausschlafen!
  4. Gestern hat Elias zu viel gefeiert, und jetzt schläft er seinen Kater aus.

As a student, Lukas slept in on the weekends.

This morning, I slept in well.

My work was very strenuous this week, so I must soon sleep in!

Yesterday, Elias celebrated too much, and now he's sleeping off his hangover.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER schläft sich aus.
  2. SLEEPER schläft ETWAS (Rausch, Fieber, usw.) aus.
  1. SLEEPER sleeps in.
  2. SLEEPER sleeps SOMETHING (intoxication, fever, etc.) off.

Details:

Used reflexively ("sich ausschlafen", with the accusative reflexive pronoun), this separable prefix verb means "to sleep in" (e.g. "Ich schlafe mich am Samstag aus" - "I sleep in on Saturday"), but when it's used with a direct object, it means to sleep something off (e.g. "Ich habe meinen Jetlag ausgeschlafen" - "I slept off my jetlag"). 

Alternate Forms:

er schläft (sich) aus, hat (sich) ausgeschlafen, schlief (sich) aus
das Schläfchen noun nap

Details:

As the diminutive form of Schlaf ("sleep"), Schläfchen denotes a little sleep - that is, a nap. While in English, a Sleeper takes a nap, in German, a Sleeper does a nap: "er macht ein Schläfchen".

Example Sentences:

  1. Am Nachmittag macht Svenein Schläfchen.
  2. Ein Schläfchen würde dir gut tun.
  3. Weil ich gestern nicht genug geschlafen habe, habe ich heute ein Schläfchen gemacht, und jetzt fühle ich mich viel besser.
  1. In the afternoon, Sven takes a nap.
  2. A nap would do you good.
  3. Because I didn't sleep enough yesterday, I took a nap today, and now I feel much better.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER macht ein Schläfchen.
  1. SLEEPER takes a nap.

Details:

As the diminutive form of Schlaf ("sleep"), Schläfchen denotes a little sleep - that is, a nap. While in English, a Sleeper takes a nap, in German, a Sleeper does a nap: "er macht ein Schläfchen".

Alternate Forms:

die Schläfchen (pl.)
der Albtraum noun nightmare

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Haben Sie oft Albträume?
  2. Als Kind hatte Marcel immer den gleichen Albtraum.
  3. Sandra wachte mit großem Angst auf, aber bald vergaß sie den Albtraum.
  1. Do you often have nightmares?
  2. As a child, Marcel always had the same nightmare.
  3. Sandra woke up with great fear, but soon she forgot the nightmare.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER hat einen Albtraum.
  1. SLEEPER has a nightmare

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

die Albträume (pl.)
der Schlaf noun sleep

Details:

Like the English version, this noun has no plural form, and is often used with verbs like bekommen ("to get"), or brauchen ("to need"). "Schlaf" appears as the first element in several compound words, such as "Schlafanzug" ("sleepwear"), "Schlafentzug" ("sleep deprivation"),  or "schlaffördernd" ("sleep inducing").

Example Sentences:

  1. Du brauchst wohl etwas Schlaf.
  2. Schlaf ist sehr wichtig für die Gesundheit.
  3. Nils sank langsam in Schlaf als er das Buch las.
  4. Es gibt nichts süßeres als ein Baby im Schlaf.
  5. Manchmal wacht Sabrina schreiend aus dem Schlaf auf, und sie weiß nicht warum.
  6. Es klopfte an der Tür und Florian wurde aus einem tiefen Schlaf gerissen.
  1. You probably need some sleep.
  2. Sleep is very important for health.
  3. Nils sank slowly into sleep as he read the book.
  4. There is nothing sweeter than a sleeping baby.
  5. Sometimes Sabrina wakes up screaming out of sleep, and she doesn't know why.
  6. A knock came at the door and Florian was torn out of a deep sleep.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER braucht/bekommt Schlaf.
  1. SLEEPER needs/gets sleep.

Details:

Like the English version, this noun has no plural form, and is often used with verbs like bekommen ("to get"), or brauchen ("to need"). "Schlaf" appears as the first element in several compound words, such as "Schlafanzug" ("sleepwear"), "Schlafentzug" ("sleep deprivation"),  or "schlaffördernd" ("sleep inducing").

der Traum noun dream

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich hatte so einen schönen Traum - ich war wieder in den Alpen.
  2. Hast du schon mal einen Traum vom Fliegen gehabt?
  3. Vanessa erzählte von ihrem sonderbaren Traum.
  1. I had such a beautiful dream - I was back in the alps.
  2. Have you ever had a dream of flying?
  3. Vanessa talked about her strange dream.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER hat einen Traum.
  1. SLEEPER has a dream.

Alternate Forms:

die Träume (pl.)
schlafen verb sleep

Details:

Used like English "sleep".

Example Sentences:

  1. Wie lange schläfst du jede Nacht?
  2. Luisa hat so tief geschlafen, dass ich sie gar nicht wecken konnten.
  3. Wir schlafen zu wenig.
  4. Schlaf gut!
  5. Die Katze schlief unter dem Tisch, und der Hund schlief neben meinem Stuhl.
  1. How long do you sleep every night?
  2. Luisa slept so deeply that we couldn't wake her at all.
  3. We sleep too little.
  4. Sleep well!
  5. The cat slept under the table, and the dog slept next to my chair.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER schläft.
  1. SLEEPER sleeps.

Details:

Used like English "sleep".

Alternate Forms:

(er) schläft, hat geschlafen, schlief
verschlafen verb oversleep

Details:

Unlike the related verb "ausschlafen", this verb construes sleeping late as a mishap, not as restful fulfillment of the body's needs. It also differs from "ausschlafen" in that its prefix is not separable.

When used with no direct object - sometimes with a reflexive pronoun (in accusative) - it has a meaning like English "oversleep". Its meaning changes to sleep through when it is used with direct objects that denote events or times (e.g. "Ach, nein! Ich habe Frühstück verschlafen!" -  "Oh no! I slept through breakfast!"), and to sleep away when the direct object denotes a condition or ailment (e.g. "Ich habe meine Kopfschmerzen verschlafen." - "I slept my headache away").

Have a look at the examples to get a better idea of how these usages differ. It's also good to know that this verb can be used metaphorically to mean that one forgot or overlooked something, for example: a deadline or a due date.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich benutze einen Wecker, damit ich nicht verschlafe.
  2. Letzte Woche habe ich mich jeden Tag verschlafen.
  3. Als Erwachsene darf man nicht verschlafen.
  4. Noah hat den ganzen Vormittag verschlafen.
  5. Meine Mutter weckte mich nicht, und ich verschlief Frühstück, Mittagessen, und fast auch den ganzen Nachmittag.
  6. Ein Mann am Frankfurter Flughafen hat seinen Abflug in den Urlaub verschlafen, nachdem er sich in der Wartehalle betrunken hatte.
  7. Ich musste das Fieber verschlafen.
  8. Nachdem Max mit Clara Schluss gemacht hat, konnte sie nichts essen, und sie wollte nur ihren Liebeskummer verschlafen.
  1. I use an alarm, so that I don't oversleep.
  2. Last week, I overslept every day.
  3. As an adult, one is not allowed to oversleep.
  4. Noah slept through the entire morning.
  5. My mother didn't wake me, and I slept through breakfast, lunch, and almost the whole afternoon, too!
  6. A man at the Frankfurt Airport slept through his departure on vacation, after having gotten drunk in the waiting area.
  7. I had to sleep away the fever.
  8. After Max broke up with Clara, she couldn't eat, and she wanted only to sleep away her heartbreak.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER verschläft.
  2. SLEEPER verschläft sich.
  3. SLEEPER verschläft ETWAS (Verabredung, Abreise, usw.).
  4. SLEEPER verschläft ETWAS (Kopfschmerzen, Kummer, usw.).
  1. SLEEPER oversleeps.
  2. SLEEPER oversleeps.
  3. SLEEPER sleeps through SOMETHING (appointment, departure etc.).
  4. SLEEPER sleeps away SOMETHING (headache, worry, etc.).

Details:

Unlike the related verb "ausschlafen", this verb construes sleeping late as a mishap, not as restful fulfillment of the body's needs. It also differs from "ausschlafen" in that its prefix is not separable.

When used with no direct object - sometimes with a reflexive pronoun (in accusative) - it has a meaning like English "oversleep". Its meaning changes to sleep through when it is used with direct objects that denote events or times (e.g. "Ach, nein! Ich habe Frühstück verschlafen!" -  "Oh no! I slept through breakfast!"), and to sleep away when the direct object denotes a condition or ailment (e.g. "Ich habe meine Kopfschmerzen verschlafen." - "I slept my headache away").

Have a look at the examples to get a better idea of how these usages differ. It's also good to know that this verb can be used metaphorically to mean that one forgot or overlooked something, for example: a deadline or a due date.

Alternate Forms:

er verschläft, hat verschlafen, verschlief
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
aufstehen verb wake up

Details:

"Aufstehen," in the context of the Sleep frame, means "to get out of bed," although in other contexts it simply means "to stand up." There is a vague implication that a person does not reach full consciousness until after getting up, even though waking up ("aufwachen") certainly comes first in this scenario.

Example Sentences:

  1. Marionsteht gern früh auf.
  2. Es tut mir leid; ich bin spät aufgestanden, weil mein Wecker nicht geklingelt hat.
  3. Harald wachte um 8.00 Uhr auf, aber wollte noch nicht aufstehen.
  1. Marion likes to get up early.
  2. I'm sorry; I got up late because my alarm didn't go off.
  3. Harald woke up at 8:00 but didn't want to get up yet.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER steht auf.
  1. SLEEPER gets up.

Details:

"Aufstehen," in the context of the Sleep frame, means "to get out of bed," although in other contexts it simply means "to stand up." There is a vague implication that a person does not reach full consciousness until after getting up, even though waking up ("aufwachen") certainly comes first in this scenario.

Alternate Forms:

er steht auf, ist aufgestanden, stand auf
aufwachen verb wake up

Details:

This verb involves one of the major differences between German and English in the Sleep frame: English "wake up" can be used instransitively (with just a subject, as in "I wake up") or transitively to show causation (with subject and direct object, as in "I wake him up"), but in German, there are two different verbs for these usages. "Aufwachen" is used with the Sleeper as the subject to describe the (intransitive) scenario of someone waking up (on their own). See the entry for "wecken" to find out how to talk about causing someone to wake up.

Example Sentences:

  1. Janin wacht jeden Morgen um 7.30 Uhr auf.
  2. Wann wachst du normalerweise auf?
  3. Heute ist Kevin um 11.00 Uhr aufgewacht.
  1. Janin wakes up every morning at 7:30.
  2. When do you normally wake up?
  3. Today Kevin woke up at 11:00.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER wacht auf.
  1. SLEEPER wakes up.

Details:

This verb involves one of the major differences between German and English in the Sleep frame: English "wake up" can be used instransitively (with just a subject, as in "I wake up") or transitively to show causation (with subject and direct object, as in "I wake him up"), but in German, there are two different verbs for these usages. "Aufwachen" is used with the Sleeper as the subject to describe the (intransitive) scenario of someone waking up (on their own). See the entry for "wecken" to find out how to talk about causing someone to wake up.

Alternate Forms:

er wacht auf, ist aufgewacht, wachte auf
der Wecker noun alarm

Details:

Literally "waker", this word is translated into English as alarm or alarm clock.

Example Sentences:

  1. Stell den Wecker auf 6.00 Uhr.
  2. Jasmin braucht keinen Wecker.
  3. Mein Handy-Wecker klingelt irgendwie nicht, und ich habe mich schon dreimal diese Woche verschlafen!
  4. Ich drucke immer die Schlummertaste bevor ich aufstehe und den Wecker ausschalte.
  1. Set the alarm for 6:00.
  2. Jasmin doesn't need an alarm.
  3. My cell phone alarm is somehow not going off, and I have already overslept three times this week!
  4. I always press the snooze button before I get up and turn off the alarm.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Der Wecker weckt SLEEPER.
  2. Der Wecker klingelt.
  1. The alarm wakes SLEEPER.
  2. The alarm goes off.

Details:

Literally "waker", this word is translated into English as alarm or alarm clock.

Alternate Forms:

die Wecker (pl.)
die Schlummertaste noun snooze button

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Freund drückt die Schlummertaste normalerweise nur einmal, dann steht er gleich auf.
  2. Wieviel mal drückst du die Schlummertaste, bevor du aufstehst?
  3. Franziskas Wecker hat keine Schlummertaste.
  1. My boyfriend presses the snooze button usually only one time, then he gets right up.
  2. How many times do you press the snooze button before you get up?
  3. Franziska's alarm has no snooze button.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER drückt die Schlummertaste.
  1. SLEEPER presses the snooze button.

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

die Schlummertasten (pl.)
wecken verb wake up

Details:

This verb is one of two translation equivalents for English wake (up). German distinguishes between the transitive ("wecken") and intransitive ("aufwachen"). That is, "wecken" must be used with a direct object, and means to wake someone else up ("aufwachen" is used when a person wakes up on their own).

Example Sentences:

  1. Während der Party sind Jonas und Alina auf dem Sofa eingeschlafen, und Jan musste sie wecken, damit sie nach Hause gehen konnten.
  2. Lisa weckt ihre Mitbewohnerinnen mit ihrem lauten Singen.
  3. Meine Mutter weckte mich jeden Morgen vor dem Frühstück, als ich ein Kind war.
  1. During the party, Jonas and Alina fell asleep on the sofa, and Jan had to wake them up so that they could go home.
  2. Lisa wakes her roommates with her loud singing.
  3. My mother woke me up every morning before breakfast when I was a kid.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Jemand weckt SLEEPER.
  1. Someone wakes SLEEPER up.

Details:

This verb is one of two translation equivalents for English wake (up). German distinguishes between the transitive ("wecken") and intransitive ("aufwachen"). That is, "wecken" must be used with a direct object, and means to wake someone else up ("aufwachen" is used when a person wakes up on their own).

Alternate Forms:

(er) weckt, hat geweckt, weckte
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
aufstehen verb wake up

Details:

"Aufstehen," in the context of the Sleep frame, means "to get out of bed," although in other contexts it simply means "to stand up." There is a vague implication that a person does not reach full consciousness until after getting up, even though waking up ("aufwachen") certainly comes first in this scenario.

Example Sentences:

  1. Marionsteht gern früh auf.
  2. Es tut mir leid; ich bin spät aufgestanden, weil mein Wecker nicht geklingelt hat.
  3. Harald wachte um 8.00 Uhr auf, aber wollte noch nicht aufstehen.
  1. Marion likes to get up early.
  2. I'm sorry; I got up late because my alarm didn't go off.
  3. Harald woke up at 8:00 but didn't want to get up yet.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER steht auf.
  1. SLEEPER gets up.

Details:

"Aufstehen," in the context of the Sleep frame, means "to get out of bed," although in other contexts it simply means "to stand up." There is a vague implication that a person does not reach full consciousness until after getting up, even though waking up ("aufwachen") certainly comes first in this scenario.

Alternate Forms:

er steht auf, ist aufgestanden, stand auf
aufwachen verb wake up

Details:

This verb involves one of the major differences between German and English in the Sleep frame: English "wake up" can be used instransitively (with just a subject, as in "I wake up") or transitively to show causation (with subject and direct object, as in "I wake him up"), but in German, there are two different verbs for these usages. "Aufwachen" is used with the Sleeper as the subject to describe the (intransitive) scenario of someone waking up (on their own). See the entry for "wecken" to find out how to talk about causing someone to wake up.

Example Sentences:

  1. Janin wacht jeden Morgen um 7.30 Uhr auf.
  2. Wann wachst du normalerweise auf?
  3. Heute ist Kevin um 11.00 Uhr aufgewacht.
  1. Janin wakes up every morning at 7:30.
  2. When do you normally wake up?
  3. Today Kevin woke up at 11:00.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER wacht auf.
  1. SLEEPER wakes up.

Details:

This verb involves one of the major differences between German and English in the Sleep frame: English "wake up" can be used instransitively (with just a subject, as in "I wake up") or transitively to show causation (with subject and direct object, as in "I wake him up"), but in German, there are two different verbs for these usages. "Aufwachen" is used with the Sleeper as the subject to describe the (intransitive) scenario of someone waking up (on their own). See the entry for "wecken" to find out how to talk about causing someone to wake up.

Alternate Forms:

er wacht auf, ist aufgewacht, wachte auf
ausschlafen verb sleep in, sleep off

Details:

Used reflexively ("sich ausschlafen", with the accusative reflexive pronoun), this separable prefix verb means "to sleep in" (e.g. "Ich schlafe mich am Samstag aus" - "I sleep in on Saturday"), but when it's used with a direct object, it means to sleep something off (e.g. "Ich habe meinen Jetlag ausgeschlafen" - "I slept off my jetlag"). 

Example Sentences:

  1. Als Student schlief sich Lukas an den Wochenenden aus.
  2. Heute Morgen habe ich mich gut ausgeschlafen.
  3. Meine Arbeit war sehr anstrengend diese Woche, darum muss ich mich bald ausschlafen!
  4. Gestern hat Elias zu viel gefeiert, und jetzt schläft er seinen Kater aus.

As a student, Lukas slept in on the weekends.

This morning, I slept in well.

My work was very strenuous this week, so I must soon sleep in!

Yesterday, Elias celebrated too much, and now he's sleeping off his hangover.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER schläft sich aus.
  2. SLEEPER schläft ETWAS (Rausch, Fieber, usw.) aus.
  1. SLEEPER sleeps in.
  2. SLEEPER sleeps SOMETHING (intoxication, fever, etc.) off.

Details:

Used reflexively ("sich ausschlafen", with the accusative reflexive pronoun), this separable prefix verb means "to sleep in" (e.g. "Ich schlafe mich am Samstag aus" - "I sleep in on Saturday"), but when it's used with a direct object, it means to sleep something off (e.g. "Ich habe meinen Jetlag ausgeschlafen" - "I slept off my jetlag"). 

Alternate Forms:

er schläft (sich) aus, hat (sich) ausgeschlafen, schlief (sich) aus
bewusstlos adjective unconscious

Details:

Used like its English equivalent.

Example Sentences:

  1. Pascal konnte kaum stehen, dann wurde sie momentan bewusstlos.
  2. Zwei Tage nach dem Unfall lag Timo noch bewusstlos im Krankenhaus.
  3. Beim Boxkampf schlägt Torben seinen Gegner bewusstlos.
  1. Pascal could hardly stand, then she became momentarily unconscious.
  2. Two days after the accident, Timo still lay unconscious in the hospital.
  3. In the boxing match, Torben beats his opponent unconscious.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER ist/wird bewusstlos.
  1. SLEEPER is/becomes unconscious.

Details:

Used like its English equivalent.

das Bewusstsein verlieren construction lose consciousness

Details:

This expression exists in both German and English.

Example Sentences:

  1. Wenn ich den Atem anhalte, verliere ich das Bewusstsein.
  2. Jonas war so schwer verletzt, dass er das Bewusstsein verloren hat.
  3. Beim Fußballspiel war es so heiß, das ein Fan das Bewusstsein verlor.
  1. If I hold my breath, I lose consciousness.
  2. Jonas was so badly hurt, that he lost consciousness.
  3. At the soccer game, it was so hot that a fan lost consciousness.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER verliert das Bewusstsein.
  1. SLEEPER loses consciousness.

Details:

This expression exists in both German and English.

Alternate Forms:

er verliert das Bewusstsein, hat das Bewusstsein verloren, verlor das Bewusstsein
das Schläfchen noun nap

Details:

As the diminutive form of Schlaf ("sleep"), Schläfchen denotes a little sleep - that is, a nap. While in English, a Sleeper takes a nap, in German, a Sleeper does a nap: "er macht ein Schläfchen".

Example Sentences:

  1. Am Nachmittag macht Svenein Schläfchen.
  2. Ein Schläfchen würde dir gut tun.
  3. Weil ich gestern nicht genug geschlafen habe, habe ich heute ein Schläfchen gemacht, und jetzt fühle ich mich viel besser.
  1. In the afternoon, Sven takes a nap.
  2. A nap would do you good.
  3. Because I didn't sleep enough yesterday, I took a nap today, and now I feel much better.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER macht ein Schläfchen.
  1. SLEEPER takes a nap.

Details:

As the diminutive form of Schlaf ("sleep"), Schläfchen denotes a little sleep - that is, a nap. While in English, a Sleeper takes a nap, in German, a Sleeper does a nap: "er macht ein Schläfchen".

Alternate Forms:

die Schläfchen (pl.)
der Albtraum noun nightmare

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Haben Sie oft Albträume?
  2. Als Kind hatte Marcel immer den gleichen Albtraum.
  3. Sandra wachte mit großem Angst auf, aber bald vergaß sie den Albtraum.
  1. Do you often have nightmares?
  2. As a child, Marcel always had the same nightmare.
  3. Sandra woke up with great fear, but soon she forgot the nightmare.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER hat einen Albtraum.
  1. SLEEPER has a nightmare

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

die Albträume (pl.)
der Schlaf noun sleep

Details:

Like the English version, this noun has no plural form, and is often used with verbs like bekommen ("to get"), or brauchen ("to need"). "Schlaf" appears as the first element in several compound words, such as "Schlafanzug" ("sleepwear"), "Schlafentzug" ("sleep deprivation"),  or "schlaffördernd" ("sleep inducing").

Example Sentences:

  1. Du brauchst wohl etwas Schlaf.
  2. Schlaf ist sehr wichtig für die Gesundheit.
  3. Nils sank langsam in Schlaf als er das Buch las.
  4. Es gibt nichts süßeres als ein Baby im Schlaf.
  5. Manchmal wacht Sabrina schreiend aus dem Schlaf auf, und sie weiß nicht warum.
  6. Es klopfte an der Tür und Florian wurde aus einem tiefen Schlaf gerissen.
  1. You probably need some sleep.
  2. Sleep is very important for health.
  3. Nils sank slowly into sleep as he read the book.
  4. There is nothing sweeter than a sleeping baby.
  5. Sometimes Sabrina wakes up screaming out of sleep, and she doesn't know why.
  6. A knock came at the door and Florian was torn out of a deep sleep.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER braucht/bekommt Schlaf.
  1. SLEEPER needs/gets sleep.

Details:

Like the English version, this noun has no plural form, and is often used with verbs like bekommen ("to get"), or brauchen ("to need"). "Schlaf" appears as the first element in several compound words, such as "Schlafanzug" ("sleepwear"), "Schlafentzug" ("sleep deprivation"),  or "schlaffördernd" ("sleep inducing").

der Traum noun dream

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich hatte so einen schönen Traum - ich war wieder in den Alpen.
  2. Hast du schon mal einen Traum vom Fliegen gehabt?
  3. Vanessa erzählte von ihrem sonderbaren Traum.
  1. I had such a beautiful dream - I was back in the alps.
  2. Have you ever had a dream of flying?
  3. Vanessa talked about her strange dream.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER hat einen Traum.
  1. SLEEPER has a dream.

Alternate Forms:

die Träume (pl.)
der Wecker noun alarm

Details:

Literally "waker", this word is translated into English as alarm or alarm clock.

Example Sentences:

  1. Stell den Wecker auf 6.00 Uhr.
  2. Jasmin braucht keinen Wecker.
  3. Mein Handy-Wecker klingelt irgendwie nicht, und ich habe mich schon dreimal diese Woche verschlafen!
  4. Ich drucke immer die Schlummertaste bevor ich aufstehe und den Wecker ausschalte.
  1. Set the alarm for 6:00.
  2. Jasmin doesn't need an alarm.
  3. My cell phone alarm is somehow not going off, and I have already overslept three times this week!
  4. I always press the snooze button before I get up and turn off the alarm.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Der Wecker weckt SLEEPER.
  2. Der Wecker klingelt.
  1. The alarm wakes SLEEPER.
  2. The alarm goes off.

Details:

Literally "waker", this word is translated into English as alarm or alarm clock.

Alternate Forms:

die Wecker (pl.)
die Schlummertaste noun snooze button

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Freund drückt die Schlummertaste normalerweise nur einmal, dann steht er gleich auf.
  2. Wieviel mal drückst du die Schlummertaste, bevor du aufstehst?
  3. Franziskas Wecker hat keine Schlummertaste.
  1. My boyfriend presses the snooze button usually only one time, then he gets right up.
  2. How many times do you press the snooze button before you get up?
  3. Franziska's alarm has no snooze button.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER drückt die Schlummertaste.
  1. SLEEPER presses the snooze button.

Details:

Used like its English counterpart.

Alternate Forms:

die Schlummertasten (pl.)
dösen verb doze

Details:

Used like its English equivalent to describe a light sleep.

Example Sentences:

  1. Jeden Morgen döse ich auf dem Bus zur Uni.
  2. Sigmund döst immer, wenn er fernsieht.
  3. Das kleine Baby liegt im Kinderwagen und döst.
  1. Every morning, I doze on the bus to the university.
  2. Sigmund dozes always, when he watches TV.
  3. The little baby is lying in the stroller and dozing.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER döst.
  1. SLEEPER dozes.

Details:

Used like its English equivalent to describe a light sleep.

Alternate Forms:

(er) döst, hat gedöst, döste
einschlafen verb fall asleep

Details:

This separable prefix verb is used like English "to fall asleep", and is not to be confused with "verschlafen" ("to sleep in").

Example Sentences:

  1. Der alte Mann schlief vor dem Fernseher ein.
  2. Wann bist du eingeschlafen?
  3. Emilie schläft während der Woche um 21 Uhr ein.
  1. The old man fell asleep in front of the TV.
  2. When did you fall asleep?
  3. Emilie falls asleep during the week at 9pm.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER schläft ein.
  1. SLEEPER falls asleep.

Details:

This separable prefix verb is used like English "to fall asleep", and is not to be confused with "verschlafen" ("to sleep in").

Alternate Forms:

(er) schläft ein, ist eingeschlafen, schlief ein
in Ohnmacht fallen construction faint

Details:

Used like English "faint", this construction's literal meaning is "to fall into powerlessness."

Example Sentences:

  1. Vivien hatte so viel Angst, dass sie in Ohnmacht gefallen ist.
  2. Ole ist zum Arzt gegangen, weil er am vorigen Tag in Ohnmacht gefallen war.
  3. Seitdem Hendrik in Ohnmacht fiel, fühlt er sich schwach.
  1. Vivien was so afraid that she fainted.
  2. Ole went to the doctor, because he had fainted on the previous day.
  3. Since Hendrik fainted, he feels weak.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER fällt in Ohnmacht.
  1. SLEEPER faints.

Details:

Used like English "faint", this construction's literal meaning is "to fall into powerlessness."

Alternate Forms:

(er) fällt in Ohnmacht, ist in Ohnmacht gefallen, fiel in Ohnmacht
müde adjective tired

Details:

Used like its English counterpart. When placed directly before a noun, normal adjective ending rules apply, but there is no need to add an additional "e".

See Grimm Grammar for details: https://coerll.utexas.edu/gg/gr/adj_01.html.

Example Sentences:

  1. Studenten sind immer müde, weil sie nicht genug schlafen.
  2. Was ist mit dir los? Bist dumüde?
  3. Ein müder Wanderer steigt den Berg hinab.
  1. Students are always tired, because they don't sleep enough.
  2. What's the matter? Are you tired?
  3. A tired wanderer is climbing down the mountain.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER ist müde
  2. SLEEPER wird müde
  3. ein müde- SLEEPER

 

  1. SLEEPER is tired
  2. SLEEPER becomes/gets tired
  3. a tired SLEEPER

Details:

Used like its English counterpart. When placed directly before a noun, normal adjective ending rules apply, but there is no need to add an additional "e".

See Grimm Grammar for details: https://coerll.utexas.edu/gg/gr/adj_01.html.

schlafen verb sleep

Details:

Used like English "sleep".

Example Sentences:

  1. Wie lange schläfst du jede Nacht?
  2. Luisa hat so tief geschlafen, dass ich sie gar nicht wecken konnten.
  3. Wir schlafen zu wenig.
  4. Schlaf gut!
  5. Die Katze schlief unter dem Tisch, und der Hund schlief neben meinem Stuhl.
  1. How long do you sleep every night?
  2. Luisa slept so deeply that we couldn't wake her at all.
  3. We sleep too little.
  4. Sleep well!
  5. The cat slept under the table, and the dog slept next to my chair.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER schläft.
  1. SLEEPER sleeps.

Details:

Used like English "sleep".

Alternate Forms:

(er) schläft, hat geschlafen, schlief
schläfrig adjective sleepy

Details:

Used like its English counterpart

Example Sentences:

  1. Kevin ist zu schläfrig, einen ganzen Film anzusehen.
  2. Bist du nicht schläfrigEs ist schon Mitternacht!
  3. Das Kind sitzt ruhig neben seiner Mutter und sieht mit schläfrigen Augen aus dem Fenster.
  1. Kevin is too sleepy to watch a whole movie.
  2. Are you not sleepy? It is already midnight!
  3. The child sits quietly next to its mother and looks with sleepy eyes out the window.

Grammar:

Adjectives in Action

There are two main ways to use adjectives in German that parallel the ways adjectives are used in English. These usages are illustrated in the table below.

Predicate AdjectivesAttributive Adjectives
1. Sara ist arbeitslos.2. Saras arbeitsloser Mann sucht einen Job.
Sara is unemployedSara's unemployed husband is looking for a job
3. Der Kunde wurde wütend.4. Der wütende Kunde verließ den Laden.
The customer became angry.The angry customer left the store.
5. Viele deutsche Wähler sind gut informiert6. Informierte Wähler sind wichtig für eine Demokratie.
Many German voters are well informed.Informed voters are important for a democracy.

Predicate adjectives are part of a sentence's predicate, the part that states something about the subject. When used in this way, as in examples (1), (3), and (5), the adjective typically follows a verb like sein ("to be") or werden ("to become"), and appears in its most basic form. Attributive adjectives directly attribute a quality to a noun by appearing before it in the sentence; no verb comes between the adjective and the noun it describes. In attributive uses, such as (2), (4), and (6), endings are added to the adjectives. At a minimum, an attributive adjective in German gets an "e" at the end, although there are several possibilities. Adjective endings are difficult to master, so if you are in your first few years of study, the take-away here is that attributive adjectives get endings (an "e" or more), and predicate adjectives do not. If you are further in your studies or just tenaciously curious, you can learn more about adjective endings here, here and here.

Comparisons using Adjectives

In the Alternate Forms tab, you can see the comparative (e.g. gut - besser, "good" - "better") and superlative (e.g. gut - am besten, "good" - "the best") forms of an adjective. German and English are similar in their uses of comparative; both languages add an "-er" ending to make comparative forms, for example: wütend, wütender ("angry, angrier"), informiert, informierter ("informed, more informed"), etc. The main difference is that English sometimes does not allow such an ending (e.g. *stupider, *informeder, *loster), but in German, the "-er" ending is always possible, and "more" does appear with an adjective to convey the comparative meaning. There are a few more rules for German comparatives and superlatives (including some irregular forms) that you can read about here.

 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER ist schläfrig.
  2. ein schläfrig- SLEEPER
  1. SLEEPER is sleepy.
  2. a sleepy SLEEPER

Details:

Used like its English counterpart

verschlafen verb oversleep

Details:

Unlike the related verb "ausschlafen", this verb construes sleeping late as a mishap, not as restful fulfillment of the body's needs. It also differs from "ausschlafen" in that its prefix is not separable.

When used with no direct object - sometimes with a reflexive pronoun (in accusative) - it has a meaning like English "oversleep". Its meaning changes to sleep through when it is used with direct objects that denote events or times (e.g. "Ach, nein! Ich habe Frühstück verschlafen!" -  "Oh no! I slept through breakfast!"), and to sleep away when the direct object denotes a condition or ailment (e.g. "Ich habe meine Kopfschmerzen verschlafen." - "I slept my headache away").

Have a look at the examples to get a better idea of how these usages differ. It's also good to know that this verb can be used metaphorically to mean that one forgot or overlooked something, for example: a deadline or a due date.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich benutze einen Wecker, damit ich nicht verschlafe.
  2. Letzte Woche habe ich mich jeden Tag verschlafen.
  3. Als Erwachsene darf man nicht verschlafen.
  4. Noah hat den ganzen Vormittag verschlafen.
  5. Meine Mutter weckte mich nicht, und ich verschlief Frühstück, Mittagessen, und fast auch den ganzen Nachmittag.
  6. Ein Mann am Frankfurter Flughafen hat seinen Abflug in den Urlaub verschlafen, nachdem er sich in der Wartehalle betrunken hatte.
  7. Ich musste das Fieber verschlafen.
  8. Nachdem Max mit Clara Schluss gemacht hat, konnte sie nichts essen, und sie wollte nur ihren Liebeskummer verschlafen.
  1. I use an alarm, so that I don't oversleep.
  2. Last week, I overslept every day.
  3. As an adult, one is not allowed to oversleep.
  4. Noah slept through the entire morning.
  5. My mother didn't wake me, and I slept through breakfast, lunch, and almost the whole afternoon, too!
  6. A man at the Frankfurt Airport slept through his departure on vacation, after having gotten drunk in the waiting area.
  7. I had to sleep away the fever.
  8. After Max broke up with Clara, she couldn't eat, and she wanted only to sleep away her heartbreak.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SLEEPER verschläft.
  2. SLEEPER verschläft sich.
  3. SLEEPER verschläft ETWAS (Verabredung, Abreise, usw.).
  4. SLEEPER verschläft ETWAS (Kopfschmerzen, Kummer, usw.).
  1. SLEEPER oversleeps.
  2. SLEEPER oversleeps.
  3. SLEEPER sleeps through SOMETHING (appointment, departure etc.).
  4. SLEEPER sleeps away SOMETHING (headache, worry, etc.).

Details:

Unlike the related verb "ausschlafen", this verb construes sleeping late as a mishap, not as restful fulfillment of the body's needs. It also differs from "ausschlafen" in that its prefix is not separable.

When used with no direct object - sometimes with a reflexive pronoun (in accusative) - it has a meaning like English "oversleep". Its meaning changes to sleep through when it is used with direct objects that denote events or times (e.g. "Ach, nein! Ich habe Frühstück verschlafen!" -  "Oh no! I slept through breakfast!"), and to sleep away when the direct object denotes a condition or ailment (e.g. "Ich habe meine Kopfschmerzen verschlafen." - "I slept my headache away").

Have a look at the examples to get a better idea of how these usages differ. It's also good to know that this verb can be used metaphorically to mean that one forgot or overlooked something, for example: a deadline or a due date.

Alternate Forms:

er verschläft, hat verschlafen, verschlief
wecken verb wake up

Details:

This verb is one of two translation equivalents for English wake (up). German distinguishes between the transitive ("wecken") and intransitive ("aufwachen"). That is, "wecken" must be used with a direct object, and means to wake someone else up ("aufwachen" is used when a person wakes up on their own).

Example Sentences:

  1. Während der Party sind Jonas und Alina auf dem Sofa eingeschlafen, und Jan musste sie wecken, damit sie nach Hause gehen konnten.
  2. Lisa weckt ihre Mitbewohnerinnen mit ihrem lauten Singen.
  3. Meine Mutter weckte mich jeden Morgen vor dem Frühstück, als ich ein Kind war.
  1. During the party, Jonas and Alina fell asleep on the sofa, and Jan had to wake them up so that they could go home.
  2. Lisa wakes her roommates with her loud singing.
  3. My mother woke me up every morning before breakfast when I was a kid.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Jemand weckt SLEEPER.
  1. Someone wakes SLEEPER up.

Details:

This verb is one of two translation equivalents for English wake (up). German distinguishes between the transitive ("wecken") and intransitive ("aufwachen"). That is, "wecken" must be used with a direct object, and means to wake someone else up ("aufwachen" is used when a person wakes up on their own).

Alternate Forms:

(er) weckt, hat geweckt, weckte