Frame description

In this frame, a Cognizer makes a choice in favor of a particular entity or course of action (the Chosen). The Chosen is one of several options included in a set of Possibilities, and is selected with some intended Purpose in mind (the Purpose can be expressed using the "um...zu" construction; see der Infinitivsatz for details). Often, an Explanation is given, which serves as the basis of the choice (typically in a dependent clause headed by a conjuction such as "weil" or "denn").

Rarely, the general Topic (about which the decision is made) can be added using a prepositional phrase, as in Auf der Versammlung sollten wir über die Zukunftsplan beschließen ("At the meeting, we should decide about the future plan").

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Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms

Frame Elements

Frame Element descriptions (on hover):

The person who makes a choice (typically after some consideration of available options and potential outcomes).

The entity or course of action chosen by the Cognizer.

The set of options - either entities or courses of action - available to the Cognizer.

The intended purpose of the Chosen; what the Cognizer hopes to accomplish with it.

The reason or justification given for the choice made by the Cognizer.

The general concept about which a decision is made.

Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
beschließen verb to decide

Details:

to decide

This verb is used to describe an act where a decision is made. Often this act includes prior disputes between Cognizers over a Purpose. These decisions can also include Explanations from all parties involved.

This verb is often followed by a comma and a clause that conveys the decision made by the Cognizer. This clause could begin with a conjunction, but more often, it is simply an infinitive clause (see der Infinitivsatz). Examples (1) - (3) show how this works. Note that the past forms of this verb use the double "s" rather than the "ß".

Example Sentences:

  1. Das Ehepaar beschließt, die Hochzeit abzubrechen.
  2. Wir beschlossen, die Garage etwas größer zu bauen.
  3. Ich beschloss, mein Leben völlig zu ändern.
  4. Der Abschluss des Zukunftspakts war die Voraussetzung für den Investitionsplan des Autobauers bis 2021, über den der Aufsichtsrat am Freitag in Wolfsburg beraten und vor allem beschließen sollte.
  1. The couple decides to cancel the wedding.
  2. We decided to build the garage a little bigger.
  3. I decided to change my life completely.
  4. The conclusion of the Future Pact was the condition for the investment plan of the automakers until 2021, about which the supervisory board on Friday in Wolfsburg was supposed to deliberate and above all decide.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER beschließt.
  2. COGNIZER beschließt, [Infinitivsatz].
  3. COGNIZER beschließt über TOPIC.
  1. COGNIZER decides.
  2. COGNIZER decides, [infinitive clause].
  3. COGNIZER  decides about TOPIC.

Details:

to decide

This verb is used to describe an act where a decision is made. Often this act includes prior disputes between Cognizers over a Purpose. These decisions can also include Explanations from all parties involved.

This verb is often followed by a comma and a clause that conveys the decision made by the Cognizer. This clause could begin with a conjunction, but more often, it is simply an infinitive clause (see der Infinitivsatz). Examples (1) - (3) show how this works. Note that the past forms of this verb use the double "s" rather than the "ß".

Alternate Forms:

(er/sie/es) beschließt/ beschloss/ hat beschlossen
die Auswahl noun selection, variety

Details:

selection, variety

This noun can refer to either the act of "selection" (i.e. the process of choosing), as in (1), or rarely to a set of options available to the Cognizer. When used in this latter sense, it may encodes the frame element Possibilities. These Possibilities can be either entities or courses of action.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Auswahl der Songs ist schwer gefallen.
  2. Unis haben laut Gesetz mehr Freiheit bei der Auswahl ihrer Studenten.
  3. Eine Jury entscheidet über die Auswahl der besten Autoren.
  1. The selection of songs has been difficult.
  2. Universities have by law more freedom in the selection of their students.
  3. A jury decides on the selection of the best authors.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. [die Auswahl CHOSEN.genitive]
  2. [eine Auswahl POSSIBILITIES.genitive]
  3. COGNIZER entscheidet über die Auswahl POSSIBILITIES.genitive.
  1. [the selection of CHOSEN]
  2. [a selection of POSSIBILITIES]
  3. COGNIZER decides about the selection of POSSIBILITIES.

Details:

selection, variety

This noun can refer to either the act of "selection" (i.e. the process of choosing), as in (1), or rarely to a set of options available to the Cognizer. When used in this latter sense, it may encodes the frame element Possibilities. These Possibilities can be either entities or courses of action.

Alternate Forms:

no plural
die Entscheidung noun decision

Details:

decision

This nouns is used similarly to its English counterpart. It describes the act of deciding from multiple Possibilities for a specific or general Purpose. When this LU is used, it can express the Chosen frame element.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Entscheidung dies zu tun trifft die Gemeinschaft.
  2. Der Koalitionsvertrag trifft weitreichende Entscheidungen in der Klimapolitik.
  3. Eine endgültige Entscheidung wird in den nächsten Wochen erwartet.
  4. Seine Entscheidung hängt von den Perspektiven des Vereins ab.
  5. Diese Entscheidung kostete ihm das Leben.
  1. The decision to do this makes the community.
  2. The coalition's treaty makes wide-reaching decisions about climate politics.
  3. A final decision is expected in the coming weeks.
  4. His decision depends on the viewpoints of the club.
  5. This decision cost him his life.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER trifft (eine) Entscheidung.
  1. COGNIZER makes (a) decision.

Details:

decision

This nouns is used similarly to its English counterpart. It describes the act of deciding from multiple Possibilities for a specific or general Purpose. When this LU is used, it can express the Chosen frame element.

Alternate Forms:

die Entscheidungen
die Wahl noun choice, election

Details:

choice, election

This noun is used similarly to its English counterpart, but includes not only choices between Possibilities (such as, die Wahl der Schule, "the choice of schools"), but also political elections. While English uses specialized terms for elections and voting, German speakers discuss political choices using the same vocabulary that is used for other kinds of choices. During a Wahl, a Cognizer selects the Chosen for a particular Purpose, or a group of Cognizers select the Chosen collectively by vote. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Man öffnet das Nachrichtenkonsumierprogramm seiner Wahl und liest.
  2. Lucien hatte keine Wahl.
  3. Die CDU gewann die Wahl.
  4. Die Menschen stehen vor der Wahl.
  5. Das Ziel sei, den Eltern mehr Spielraum bei der Wahl der Schule für ihre Kinder zu geben.
  1. One opens the news consumtion program of his choice and reads.
  2. Lucien had no choice.
  3. The CDU won the election.
  4. The people stand before the election.
  5. The goal is to give parents more allowance in the choice of schools for thier children.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER hat eine Wahl.
  2. COGNIZER hat die Wahl, TOPIC.Infinitivsatz.
  3. COGNIZER geht zur Wahl.
  4. COGNIZER steht vor der Wahl.
  5. CHOSEN gewinnt die Wahl.
  6. CHOSEN wird durch die Wahl gewählt.
  7. [CHOSEN COGNIZERs.genitive Wahl]
  1. COGNIZER has a choice.
  2. COGNIZER has the choice, TOPIC.infinitive_clause.
  3. COGNIZER goes to vote.
  4. COGNIZER has to chose what to vote for.
  5. CHOSEN win the election.
  6. CHOSEN is elected through the election.
  7. [CHOSEN of COGNIZERs choice]

Details:

choice, election

This noun is used similarly to its English counterpart, but includes not only choices between Possibilities (such as, die Wahl der Schule, "the choice of schools"), but also political elections. While English uses specialized terms for elections and voting, German speakers discuss political choices using the same vocabulary that is used for other kinds of choices. During a Wahl, a Cognizer selects the Chosen for a particular Purpose, or a group of Cognizers select the Chosen collectively by vote. 

Alternate Forms:

die Wahlen
eine Entscheidung treffen construction to make a decision

Details:

make a decision, lit. meet a decision

This phrase is used similarly to its English counterpart. A Cognizer decides from multiple Possibilities for a specific or general Purpose.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Entscheidung trafen die Politiker gemeinsam.
  2. Er musste nun eine schwierige Entscheidung treffen.
  3. Ich werde keine Entscheidung treffen, die die Mission gefährdet.
  4. "Deswegen habe ich die Entscheidung getroffen, beim VfL Bochum zu bleiben", sagte Hochstätter.
  1. The politicians made the decision together.
  2. He had to make a difficult decision.
  3. I will not make a decision that endangers the mission.
  4. "Because of that I have made the decision to stay with VfL Bochum," said Hochstätter.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER trifft eine Entscheidung.
  2. COGNIZER trifft die Entscheidung, CHOSEN.Infinitivsatz.
  1. COGNIZER makes a decision.
  2. COGNIZER makes the decision, CHOSEN.infinitive_clause.

Details:

make a decision, lit. meet a decision

This phrase is used similarly to its English counterpart. A Cognizer decides from multiple Possibilities for a specific or general Purpose.

Alternate Forms:

(er/sie/es) trifft/ traf/ hat eine Entscheidung getroffen
entschließen verb to decide

Details:

decide

This verb is used to describe a decision made after considering other or all Possibilities for a specific Purpose. It is often used as a reflexive verb (with no significant meaning difference). This verb is often followed by a comma and a clause that conveys the decision made by the Cognizer; see examples (1) and (3). Note that the past forms of this verb use the double "s" rather than the "ß".

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir entschlossen uns, den schmerzlichen Weg zu gehen.
  2. Sie entschlossen sich zu einem Kompromiß.
  3. Er entschloss sich, die Nikotinsucht zu bekämpfen.
  1. We decided to do it the hard way.
  2. They decided for a compromise.
  3. He decided to fight his addiction to nicotine.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER entschließt (sich).
  2. COGNIZER entschließt (sich), CHOSEN.Infinitivsatz.
  1. COGNIZER decides.
  2. COGNIZER decides CHOSEN.infinitive_clause.

Details:

decide

This verb is used to describe a decision made after considering other or all Possibilities for a specific Purpose. It is often used as a reflexive verb (with no significant meaning difference). This verb is often followed by a comma and a clause that conveys the decision made by the Cognizer; see examples (1) and (3). Note that the past forms of this verb use the double "s" rather than the "ß".

Alternate Forms:

(er/sie/es) entschließt/ entschloss/ hat entschlossen
feststellen noun to determine

Details:

to determine

This verb is used to describe a situation where a Cognizer has an authoritative position to make a decision. The Cognizer usually has a legitimate Explanation for the Chosen, and the Chosen is sometimes an acknowledgement of something as true or accurate (like when a judge determines what happened in an alleged crime).

Note that there are other uses of this verb which fall outside of the Deciding frame, where its meaning is more like "to find", as in "Die Studie stellte fest, dass Fans Online-Streaming bevorzugen" ("The study found that fans prefer online streaming"). In these cases, it is more like a fact is shown rather than being chosen.

Example Sentences:

  1. Das hat das Verwaltungsgericht Gelsenkirchen festgestellt.
  2. Nach dem Kauf habe ich festgestellt, dass das Auto kaputt ist.
  3. Sie stellte fest, dass ihr Plan gelungen war.
  1. That has the administrative court of Gelsenkirchen determined.
  2. After the purchase I determined that the car is broken.
  3. She determined that her plan had worked.

Grammar:

Verbs with Separable Prefixes

Some verbs have a prefix that moves around in the sentence, depending on what form the verb takes. In the infinitive form, the prefix is attached, like "ausgehen" (to go out). If the verb is conjugated (in present or simple past tense), the prefix appears at the end of the clause, as in "Ich gehe heute Abend aus." For more information about these verbs, see the examples for individual verbs or read these explanations from Grimm Grammar: present tense, conversational past tense (Perfekt).

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER stellt fest.
  2. COGNIZER stellt fest, dass...
  1. COGNIZER determines.
  2. COGNIZER determines that...

Details:

to determine

This verb is used to describe a situation where a Cognizer has an authoritative position to make a decision. The Cognizer usually has a legitimate Explanation for the Chosen, and the Chosen is sometimes an acknowledgement of something as true or accurate (like when a judge determines what happened in an alleged crime).

Note that there are other uses of this verb which fall outside of the Deciding frame, where its meaning is more like "to find", as in "Die Studie stellte fest, dass Fans Online-Streaming bevorzugen" ("The study found that fans prefer online streaming"). In these cases, it is more like a fact is shown rather than being chosen.

Alternate Forms:

(er/sie/es) stellt fest/ stellte fest/ hat festgestellt
sich entscheiden verb to decide

Details:

to decide

This verb is used to describe a situation where Cognizers decide on a Purpose after debating on a range of Possibilities. Using the conjunction "ob" ("whether"), the Possibilities can be introduced in a dependent clause, e.g. "Er muss sich entwcheiden, ob er bleibt (oder geht)," "He must decide whether he is staying (or going)." In English we can sometimes use the verb "to opt" to describe this verb more accurately, as in example (3).

It is possible (but not as common) to use this verb without the reflexive pronoun. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir entscheiden uns für Plan B.
  2. Ich entschied, einfach stehenzubleiben und zu warten.
  3. Sie entschied sich für eine gerechte Lösung.
  1. We are opting for Plan B. 
  2. I decided to just stop and wait.
  3. She opted for a fair solution.

Grammar:

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER entscheidet sich.
  2. COGNIZER entscheidet sich für CHOSEN.
  3. COGNIZER entscheidet, CHOSEN.Infinitivsatz.
  1. COGNIZER decides.
  2. COGNIZER decides on CHOSEN.
  3. COGNIZER decides CHOSEN.infinitive_clause.

Details:

to decide

This verb is used to describe a situation where Cognizers decide on a Purpose after debating on a range of Possibilities. Using the conjunction "ob" ("whether"), the Possibilities can be introduced in a dependent clause, e.g. "Er muss sich entwcheiden, ob er bleibt (oder geht)," "He must decide whether he is staying (or going)." In English we can sometimes use the verb "to opt" to describe this verb more accurately, as in example (3).

It is possible (but not as common) to use this verb without the reflexive pronoun. 

Alternate Forms:

(er/sie/es) entscheidet/ entschied/ hat entschieden
sich etw. aussuchen verb to pick sth. out

Details:

to pick something out

This verb is used similarly to its English counterpart. A Cognizer picks out the Chosen from a number of Possibilities for a specific Purpose. When a Cognizer chooses between Possibilities that are related to an election, the verb "wählen" is used more frequently.

Example Sentences:

  1. Man muss sich nur den richtigen Zeitpunkt aussuchen.
  2. Für den Filmabend haben wir uns den Film "König der Löwen" ausgesucht.
  3. Die Nachbarn kann man sich nicht aussuchen.
  1. One just has to choose the right moment.
  2. For the film night, we chose the movie "Lion King."
  3. You cannot choose your neighbors.

Grammar:

Verbs with Separable Prefixes

Some verbs have a prefix that moves around in the sentence, depending on what form the verb takes. In the infinitive form, the prefix is attached, like "ausgehen" (to go out). If the verb is conjugated (in present or simple past tense), the prefix appears at the end of the clause, as in "Ich gehe heute Abend aus." For more information about these verbs, see the examples for individual verbs or read these explanations from Grimm Grammar: present tense, conversational past tense (Perfekt).

Reflexive Verbs and Pronouns

Verbs that are used reflexively often carry a reciprocal meaning or the meaning that the subject is performing the action of the verb on themself, although some abstract verbs are used reflexively without such meanings. In any case, the reflexive pronouns and word order are the same. As a general rule, the reflexive pronoun should appear just after the subject, although the V2 rule trumps this one, so in a basic sentence, you will find: subject, verb, reflexive (e.g. Er verliebt sich in Melanie, "He is falling in love with Melanie"). For further examples, consult the Examples sections of reflexive verbs. Click here for further explanation.

NominativAkkusativDativ
ichmichmir
dudichdir
er/sie/essichsich
wirunsuns
ihreucheuch
sie/Siesichsich

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. COGNIZER sucht CHOSEN aus.
  2. COGNIZER sucht CHOSEN von POSSIBILITIES aus.
  3. COGNIZER sucht CHOSEN für PURPOSE aus.
  4. COGNIZER sucht CHOSEN von POSSIBILITIES für PURPOSE aus.
  1. COGNIZER picks out CHOSEN.
  2. COGNIZER picks out CHOSEN from POSSIBILITIES.
  3. COGNIZER picks out CHOSEN for PURPOSE.
  4. COGNIZER picks out CHOSEN from POSSIBILITIES for PURPOSE.

Details:

to pick something out

This verb is used similarly to its English counterpart. A Cognizer picks out the Chosen from a number of Possibilities for a specific Purpose. When a Cognizer chooses between Possibilities that are related to an election, the verb "wählen" is used more frequently.

Alternate Forms:

(er) sucht aus/ suchte aus/ hat ausgesucht
wählen verb to choose, to select, to elect, to vote

Details:

to choose, to select, to elect, to vote

This verb has multiple meanings. A Cognizer chooses from a number of Possibilities for a specific Purpose, however, this verb is often used during elections, and can thus often be translated as "to vote." When a Cognizer chooses between Possibilities that are not related to election, the verb "aussuchen" is used more frequently.

Example Sentences:

  1. Das Volk hat die neue Bundeskanzlerin gewählt.
  2. Die Universität wählt einen neuen Präsidenten.
  3. Du hast einen guten Wein gewählt!
  1. The people elected the new chancellor.
  2. The university chooses a new president.
  3. You chose a good wine!

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. THINKER wählt CHOSEN.
  2. THINKER wählt CHOSEN von POSSIBILITIES.
  3. THINKER wählt CHOSEN für PURPOSE.
  4. THINKER wählt CHOSEN von POSSIBILITIES für PURPOSE.
  1. THINKER chooses CHOSEN.
  2. THINKER chooses CHOSEN from POSSIBILITIES.
  3. THINKER chooses CHOSEN for PURPOSE.
  4. THINKER chooses CHOSEN from POSSIBILITIES for PURPOSE.

Details:

to choose, to select, to elect, to vote

This verb has multiple meanings. A Cognizer chooses from a number of Possibilities for a specific Purpose, however, this verb is often used during elections, and can thus often be translated as "to vote." When a Cognizer chooses between Possibilities that are not related to election, the verb "aussuchen" is used more frequently.

Alternate Forms:

(er/sie/es) wählt/ wählte/ hat gewählt