Additional forms: 
(er) bestellt...ein, hat einbestellt, bestellte ein

to summon, to order


Examples: German: 
  1. Das auswärtige Amt bestellte den kubanischen Botschafter ein.
Examples: English: 
  1. The Foreign Office summoned the Cuban ambassador.
Part of Speech: 
Sentence Templates: German: 
English LU Reference: 
to summon
to order


Mon, 04/09/2018 - 21:38 -- maggie
Frame Element Description: 

The physical entity or channel used to transmit the Message.

CSS Style: 


Mon, 04/09/2018 - 21:24 -- maggie

In this frame, a Speaker asks an Addressee for something, or to carry out some action. The Speaker is typically realized as the subject of the verb, while the Addressee is often realized as the direct object (as in, "Frag mich!," "Ask me!") or as a prepositional phrase (as in, "er verlangt von mir, dass ich ihm helfe," "he asks of me, that I help him"). The Message can be expressed in a variety of ways, such as a direct quote, a clause, or a noun phrase (see the examples in particular LU entries for LU-specific instantiations of the Message). Least frequent of all the FEs in this frame is the Medium used to convey the Message, which could be something like: "in der Zeitung" ("in the newspaper") or "im Internet" ("on the internet").

In contrast to English, where the Medium can replace the Speaker through metonymy (e.g. "the letter said…," "the newspaper said…"), German speakers use phrases such as "dem Buch nach" ("according to the book") or "im Buch steht, dass…" ("in the book it says that…") when they choose to include the Medium and not the Speaker. In particular, the verb "stehen" ("to stand") is used to convey that some Message is in a Medium, for example, "In jeder Zeitung steht dein Name und dein Foto auf der Titelseite" ("In every newspaper stands your name and your photo on the front page").

One major difference between English and German with regard to the Request frame is the way that English uses an infinitive clause to express a Message, as in, "I told him to leave." In such cases, German cannot use an Infinitivsatz to express the Message. Instead, the Message is most often expressed using a conjunction and a dependent clause, such as "dass" ("that") as in (1), or "ob" ("whether (or not)") as in (3). Note that "ob" ("whether") can only appear with certain LUs in the Request frame.

In cases like example (1), where the verb "sagen" is used (with the sense of English "told") to convey a command or request, German requires the use of a modal verb to make it clear that this was a command/request and to indicate how strong it was. Using "sollen" ("should") indicates that it was more of a request, whereas "müssen" ("must") indicates that it was a command. English can accomplish this using only the infinitive construction, and the same is true of the Message in (2). 

1.Ich habe ihm gesagt, dass er weggehen solle.*
 "I have him told, that he go away should."
 "I told him  to go away."
2.Die Diebe verlangten von ihm, dass er seine Ledertasche übergibt.
 "The thieves demanded of him  that he his leather bag hand over."
 "The thieves wanted him  to hand over his leather bag."
3.Der Lehrer fragt, ob die Studenten verstehen.
 "The teacher asks whether the students understand."
 "The teacher asks if the students understand."

*The modal "sollen" ("should") in (1) is not the normal form of this verb that you are accustomed to (that would be "er soll"). This form of sollen, "er solle," is Konjunktiv I, a special grammatical mood used when reporting indirect speech. That’s when you state what someone else said, but without quoting it verbatim. For more on reporting speech using Konjunktiv I, see Grimm Grammar


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