Frame description

This frame contains words referring to teaching and the participants in teaching. A Student comes to learn either about a Subject; a Skill; or a Fact as a result of instruction by a Teacher.

Formal education takes place at Institutions in which students take Courses in order to reach a Qualification.

This frame contains words referring to teaching and the participants in teaching. A Student comes to learn either about a Subject; a Skill; or a Fact as a result of instruction by a Teacher.

Formal education takes place at Institutions in which students take Courses in order to reach a Qualification.

 

Agent of Learning:   Student 

Source of Learning: Teacher Course Institution Material (e.g. textbook, handout)

Content of Learning: Fact Skill Subject 

Purpose of Learning:  Qualification

 

The vocabulary of Education in German and English can be quite tricky sometimes.

German often uses different sets of vocabulary depending on whether Education is done in a college/university setting or not. For instance, in English we may speak of "high school students". In German, however, only college students are called "Student" or "Studentin," whereas high-school level students are called "Schüler" or "Schülerin." Here are some sets of words for which the college/non-college distinction applies:

Non-CollegeCollege
Schüler(in)Student(in)
Lehrer(in)Dozent(in)/Professor(in)
SchuleUniversität

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Frame Elements

Frame Element descriptions (on hover):

One who is instructed by a Teacher in skills or knowledge.

Framey (STUDENT) studiert Linguistik (SUBJECT) an der Universitaet Texas (INSTITUTION).

One who instructs a Student in some area of knowledge or skill.

Er (STUDENT) belegt ein Seminar (COURSE) ueber Frame-Semantik (SUBJECT) mit Dr. Fillmore (TEACHER).

a program of lectures or other matter dealing with a subject

Er (STUDENT) belegt ein Seminar (COURSE) über Frame-Semantik (SUBJECT) mit Dr. Fillmore (TEACHER).

An educational establishment, such as a school or college.

Educational Material, such as books, tapes, or videos, used by a Teacher or a Student to acquire skills or knowledge.

Er lernt von dem Buch (MATERIAL), dass Deutsch interessant ist (FACT - spacefood is bad).

A piece of information that the Student is informed of by the Teacher.

Er lernt von dem Buch (MATERIAL), dass Deutsch interessant ist (FACT - spacefood is bad).

An action which the Student is able to perform as a result of instruction.

The area of knowledge or skill which is taught by a Teacher or to a Student.

Er (STUDENT) belegt ein Seminar (COURSE) ueber Frame-Semantik (SUBJECT) mit Dr. Fillmore (TEACHER).

A formal Qualification such as an academic degree or a certificate for which a student is aiming.

Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
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Abitur (das Abitur machen) noun graduate

Example Sentences:

  1. Linda machte letztes Jahr das Abitur.
  2. Ohne Abitur kann man nicht die Uni besuchen.
  1. Linda graduated last year.
  2. Without graduating one can't attend university.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT macht das Abitur.
  1. STUDENT graduates.

Alternate Forms:

die Abiture (pl.)
abschließen (das Studium abschließen) verb graduate, to complete

Details:

to graduate, (to complete one's studies)

Unlike English "graduate," this verb has the general meaning "to end" or "to complete," which in the context of the Education frame can tranlate to "to graduate," as in "Wann schließt du ab?" ("When are you graduating?"). It is frequently used with the Course, as in "Ich schließe im Mai mein Studium ab" ("I'm finishing in may my studies"). 

Example Sentences:

  1. Die meisten Studenten schließen mit einem BA ab.
  2. Der Student schließt das Studium an der Uni ab.
  3. Sie hat das Praktikum abgeschlossen.
  4. Nach sechs Semestern können die Studenten ihre Ausbildung als Chemie-Ingenieur abschließen.
  1. Most students graduate with a BA.
  2. The student completes his studies at the University.
  3. She completed the internship.
  4. After six semesters the students can complete their training as chemical engineer.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT schließt ab.
  2. STUDENT schließt COURSE ab.
  3. STUDENT schließt mit QUALIFICATION ab.
  1. STUDENT graduates.
  2. STUDENT completes COURSE.
  3. STUDENT graduates with QUALIFICATION.

Details:

to graduate, (to complete one's studies)

Unlike English "graduate," this verb has the general meaning "to end" or "to complete," which in the context of the Education frame can tranlate to "to graduate," as in "Wann schließt du ab?" ("When are you graduating?"). It is frequently used with the Course, as in "Ich schließe im Mai mein Studium ab" ("I'm finishing in may my studies"). 

Alternate Forms:

er schliesst ab, hat abgeschlossen, schloss ab
beibringen verb teach

Details:

teach

This word for teaching is mainly restricted to the teaching of specific SKILLS, and not of specific FACTs or general SUBJECTs.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Vater hat mir beigebracht, wie man die Schuhe bindet.
  2. Die Lehrerin bringt uns das Singen bei.
  1. My dad taught me how to tie my shoes.
  2. The teacher teaches us singing.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. TEACHER bringt SKILL bei.
  2. TEACHER bringt STUDENT.dativ SKILL bei.
  1. TEACHER teaches SKILL.
  2. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.dative SKILL.

Details:

teach

This word for teaching is mainly restricted to the teaching of specific SKILLS, and not of specific FACTs or general SUBJECTs.

Alternate Forms:

er bringt bei, hat beigebracht, brachte bei
belegen verb take (a course)

Details:

to take (for courses)

Germans generally do not use the word "take" ("nehmen") when they talk about attending a course for credit, they use the verb "belegen."

Example Sentences:

  1. Hast du schon einen Deutschkurs belegt?
  2. Ich belege dieses Semester vier Kurse!
  1. Have you ever taken a German course?
  2. I'm taking four courses this semester!

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT belegt COURSE.
  1. STUDENT takes COURSE.

Details:

to take (for courses)

Germans generally do not use the word "take" ("nehmen") when they talk about attending a course for credit, they use the verb "belegen."

Alternate Forms:

belegt, hat belegt, belegte
bestehen verb pass

Details:

The verb "bestehen" is used to descibe passing a course or passing a test/exam.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich kann es nicht glauben, dass ich die Prüfung bestanden habe.
  2. Sie besteht immer alle ihre Kurse.
  1. I can't believe that I passed the exam.
  2. She always passes all her courses.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT besteht COURSE.
  2. STUDENT besteht TASK.
  1. STUDENT passes COURSE.
  2. STUDENT passes TASK.

Details:

The verb "bestehen" is used to descibe passing a course or passing a test/exam.

Alternate Forms:

er/sie besteht, hat bestanden, bestand
das Gymnasium noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students (and a little older). However, not all students this age attend the Gymnasium, but only those who plan to attend college and work as skilled professionals. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Gymnasium (on the left in blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Mark besucht das Gymnasium.
  2. In Deutschland gibt es viele gute Gymnasien.
  3. Wenn man an einer Universität studieren möchte, muss man aufs Gymnasium.
  1. Mark attends Gymnasium.
  2. In Germany there are many good Gymnasien.
  3. If one would like to study at a university, one must go to Gymnasium.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT besucht das Gymnasium.
  2. STUDENT geht aufs Gymnasium.
  1. STUDENT attends Gymnasium.
  2. STUDENT goes to Gymnasium.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students (and a little older). However, not all students this age attend the Gymnasium, but only those who plan to attend college and work as skilled professionals. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Gymnasium (on the left in blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

die Gymnasien (pl.)
der Kurs noun course, class

Details:

course

"Der Kurs" is used to describe a semester-long course, mainly in the college setting. It is typically not used for individual class sessions (for which "der Unterricht" is used).

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich belege den Kurs nächstes Semester.
  2. Man muss in diesem Kurs viel lesen.
  3. Die Kurse von Dr. Schmidt sind immer interessant.
  1. I'm taking the course next semester.
  2. You have to read a lot in this class.
  3. Dr. Schmidt's courses are always interesting.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SUBJECT-kurs.
  2. Kurs über SUBJECT
  3. Kurs TEACHER.genitive
  1. SUBJECT-course
  2. course about SUBJECT
  3. course of TEACHER

Details:

course

"Der Kurs" is used to describe a semester-long course, mainly in the college setting. It is typically not used for individual class sessions (for which "der Unterricht" is used).

Alternate Forms:

die Kurse (pl.)
der Unterricht noun course, class, class period

Details:

class, class period, course

This word for "class/course" deals with what goes on in a class setting. It most often refers to a single class session of an academic course. Less frequently, it used to refer to the entire (semester-long) course itself.

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Unterricht von heute war seht interessant.
  2. Wir müssen im Deutschunterricht auf Deutsch sprechen.
  3. Nach dem Unterricht gehen wir in die Bar.
  1. Class today was very interesting.
  2. We have to speak German in German class.
  3. After class we go to the bar.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SUBJECT-unterricht
  1. SUBJECT-class

Details:

class, class period, course

This word for "class/course" deals with what goes on in a class setting. It most often refers to a single class session of an academic course. Less frequently, it used to refer to the entire (semester-long) course itself.

Alternate Forms:

die Unterrichte (pl.)
die Gesamtschule noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Students pursuing all types of secondary education can be found here, but not all students at the school follow the same path for career preparation (i.e. some plan to attend a university, others do not). This allows a higher degree of flexibility for students, e.g. in a Gesamtschule they can more easily change their career path. Students can also attend schools that are dedicated to only one level of career preparation, Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gymnasium.

This graphic shows where Gesamtschule (left middle in light blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Max geht auf dieGesamtschule.
  2. Die Gesamtschule liegt im Norden der Stadt.
  1. Max goes to the Gesamtschule.
  2. The Gesamtschule is in the north of town.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT geht auf/in die Gesamtschule.
  1. STUDENT goes to Gesamtschule.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Students pursuing all types of secondary education can be found here, but not all students at the school follow the same path for career preparation (i.e. some plan to attend a university, others do not). This allows a higher degree of flexibility for students, e.g. in a Gesamtschule they can more easily change their career path. Students can also attend schools that are dedicated to only one level of career preparation, Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gymnasium.

This graphic shows where Gesamtschule (left middle in light blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

die Gesamtschulen (pl.)
die Hauptschule noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Attendance at this school fulfills the minimum educational requirements for students in Germany. However, not all students this age attend "Hauptschule"; but only those who plan to have a practical career in a trade. After completing the requirements for Hauptschule, students may choose to continue their education as an apprentice. Other students attend a Realschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Hauptschule (on the right in green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Mia will auf die Hauptschule gehen, nicht aufs Gymnasium.
  2. Tom ist Lehrer an der Hauptschule.
  1. Mia wants to go to Hauptschule, not to Gymnasium.
  2. Tom is a teacher at the Hauptschule.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT geht auf/in die Hauptschule.
  1. STUDENT goes to Hauptschule.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Attendance at this school fulfills the minimum educational requirements for students in Germany. However, not all students this age attend "Hauptschule"; but only those who plan to have a practical career in a trade. After completing the requirements for Hauptschule, students may choose to continue their education as an apprentice. Other students attend a Realschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Hauptschule (on the right in green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

Hauptschulen (pl.)
die Klasse noun class

Details:

(people in) class, grade level

This word for "class" deals primarily with the people involved in the course. It most often refers to the people that one takes a course or series of courses with. In pre-university levels, students often share the same classroom all day, and these people are one's "Klasse." It may also refer to one's grade level (i.e. 8th grade = die achte Klasse) or one's graduating class (my Klasse had 300 students.) Less often, it refers to the actual, semester-long course one is in.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mit 40 Studenten ist diese Klasse zu gross.
  2. Es gibt nur 4 Jungen in der Klasse.
  3. Ich bin mit ein paar Leuten aus meiner Klasse befreundet.
  1. With 40 students, the class is too big.
  2. There are only four boys in the class.
  3. I am friends with a few people from my class/grade.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT ist in der Klasse.
  2. STUDENT.genitive Klasse
  1. STUDENT is in the class.
  2. STUDENT's class

Details:

(people in) class, grade level

This word for "class" deals primarily with the people involved in the course. It most often refers to the people that one takes a course or series of courses with. In pre-university levels, students often share the same classroom all day, and these people are one's "Klasse." It may also refer to one's grade level (i.e. 8th grade = die achte Klasse) or one's graduating class (my Klasse had 300 students.) Less often, it refers to the actual, semester-long course one is in.

Alternate Forms:

die Klassen (pl.)
die Realschule noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. However, not all students this age attend Realschule; but only those who plan to attend a vocational college or otherwise pursue a skilled trade. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Realschule (in the middle, light green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Lisa besucht seit einem Jahr die Realschule.
  2. Ich will später nicht an der Uni studieren; Realschule gefällt mir sehr gern.
  1. Lisa has been attending Realschule for a year.
  2. I don't want to study at the university later; I like Realschule a lot.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT geht auf/in die Realschule.
  1. STUDENT goes to Realschule.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. However, not all students this age attend Realschule; but only those who plan to attend a vocational college or otherwise pursue a skilled trade. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Realschule (in the middle, light green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

die Realschulen (pl.)
die Schule noun school

Details:

German "Schule" refers to any school below the college level. This includes the German equivalents of American high school (Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Realschule, Gesamtschule) and elementary school (Schule, Grundschule). However, it does not apply to universities. One cannot say that their university is "eine gute Schule".

Example Sentences:

  1. Er geht heute in die Schule.
  2. Die Frau arbeitet in der Schule.
  1. He goes to school today.
  2. The woman works at the school.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Details:

German "Schule" refers to any school below the college level. This includes the German equivalents of American high school (Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Realschule, Gesamtschule) and elementary school (Schule, Grundschule). However, it does not apply to universities. One cannot say that their university is "eine gute Schule".

Alternate Forms:

die Schulen (pl.)
die Uni noun university

Details:

university

"Die Uni" is an abbreviation for "die Universität". Similar to English "university", it refers only to higher-eduction institutions with an academic focus. It is different from vocational and technical colleges.

Example Sentences:

  1. Karin geht heute in die Uni.
  2. Die Freunde haben zusammen die Uni besucht.
  1. Karin goes to university today.
  2. The friends attended the university together.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Details:

university

"Die Uni" is an abbreviation for "die Universität". Similar to English "university", it refers only to higher-eduction institutions with an academic focus. It is different from vocational and technical colleges.

Alternate Forms:

die Unis (pl.)
Dozent(in) noun teacher, professor

Details:

This word for "teacher" refers to educators at the college level, including lecturers. It may sometimes be used to refer to people giving private group lessons. In other cases, the word "Lehrer" is preferred.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Dozentin ist neu an dieser Uni.
  2. Die Dozenten essen hier zu Mittag.
  1. The professor is new at this university.
  2. The professors eat lunch here.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Dozent an INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Dozent für SUBJECT
  1. Instructor at INSTITUTION
  2. instructor of SUBJECT

Details:

This word for "teacher" refers to educators at the college level, including lecturers. It may sometimes be used to refer to people giving private group lessons. In other cases, the word "Lehrer" is preferred.

Alternate Forms:

der Dozent (m.), die Dozentin (f.), die Dozenten (pl.), die Dozentinnen (f.pl.)
durchfallen verb fail

Details:

Durchfallen is used like the English fail.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie fällt durch Mathe durch.
  1. She is failing math.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT fällt durch COURSE.
  1. STUDENT fails COURSE.

Details:

Durchfallen is used like the English fail.

Alternate Forms:

er fällt durch, ist durchgefallen, fiel durch
durchkommen verb pass

Details:

Durchkommen is used like the English equivalent to pass.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich muss bei Mathe wirklich durchkommen.
  2. Der Lehrer glaubt nicht, dass alle Studenten durchkommen.
  1. I really have to pass math.
  2. The teacher doesn't think all students will pass.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT kommt durch COURSE.
  1. STUDENT (barely) passes COURSE.

Details:

Durchkommen is used like the English equivalent to pass.

Alternate Forms:

er kommt durch, ist durchgekommen, kam durch
lehren verb teach

Details:

teach, instruct

This is a general word for teaching, generally focusing on the content of the teaching, such as a SKILL, FACT, or SUBJECT. Generally, it may be related to informal/individual courses, but not to organized COURSES, like those at a college. For formal teaching, "unterrichten"is preferred.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Grossvater lehrte mich, dass Krieg schlecht ist.
  2. In seiner Freizeit lehrt der Klavierspieler Musiktheorie.
  3. In der Schule lehrt man uns die Nationalhymne.
  1. My grandpa taught me that war is bad.
  2. In his free time, the pianist teaches music theory.
  3. In school they teach us the national anthem.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative.
  2. TEACHER lehrt an INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER lehrt FACT.
  4. TEACHER lehrt SUBJECT.
  5. TEACHER lehrt SKILL.
  6. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative FACT.
  7. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative SUBJECT.
  8. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative SKILL.
  1. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative.
  2. TEACHER teaches at an INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER teaches FACT.
  4. TEACHER teaches SUBJECT.
  5. TEACHER teaches SKILL
  6. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative FACT.
  7. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative SUBJECT.
  8. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative SKILL.

Details:

teach, instruct

This is a general word for teaching, generally focusing on the content of the teaching, such as a SKILL, FACT, or SUBJECT. Generally, it may be related to informal/individual courses, but not to organized COURSES, like those at a college. For formal teaching, "unterrichten"is preferred.

Alternate Forms:

er lehrt, hat gelehrt, lehrte
Lehrer(in) noun teacher

Details:

This word for "teacher" typically refers to teachers in general or, more specifically to teachers below the college level. For college teachers, the word "Dozent(in)" or "Professor(in)" is preferred.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich finde meine Deutschlehrerin sehr interessant.
  2. Er ist Lehrer an dem Gymnasium.
  1. I think my German teacher is very interesting.
  2. He is a teacher at the Gymnasium (high school).

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SUBJECT-lehrer (e.g. Deutschlehrer, Mathematiklehrerin)
  2. Lehrer an INSTITUTE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-lehrer an INSTITUTE.dative
  1. SUBJECT-teacher (e.g. German teacher, Math teacher)
  2. Teacher at INSTITUTE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-teacher at INSTITUTE.dative

Details:

This word for "teacher" typically refers to teachers in general or, more specifically to teachers below the college level. For college teachers, the word "Dozent(in)" or "Professor(in)" is preferred.

Alternate Forms:

der Lehrer (m.), die Lehrerin (f.), die Lehrer (pl.), die Lehrerinnen (f.pl.)
lernen verb learn

Details:

learn, study (for a test)

This word corresponds nicely with English "learn". However, note that German lernen is also used to describe studying for a test (see lernen (study)).

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir lernen heute über die deutsche Politik.
  2. Ich habe gelernt, dass Deutschland mehr als 80 Millionen Leute hat.
  3. Wir müssen lernen, wie man das "r" ausspricht.
  1. Today we're learning about German politics.
  2. I learned that Germany has more than 80 million people.
  3. We have to learn how to pronounce the "r".

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT lernt über SUBJECT.
  2. STUDENT lernt FACT/SKILL.
  1. STUDENT learns about SUBJECT.
  2. STUDENT learns FACT/SKILL.

Details:

learn, study (for a test)

This word corresponds nicely with English "learn". However, note that German lernen is also used to describe studying for a test (see lernen (study)).

Alternate Forms:

er lernt, hat gelernt, lernte
lernen (für Test) verb study (for exam)

Details:

study (for test)

The word "lernen" is used to describe studying for specific examinations in courses, such as quizzes and tests. Here, "lernen" translates to English "study" and not "learn". This is the verb used to describe day to day habits of studying course materials (not "studieren").

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich lerne für die Prüfung.
  2. Ich muss heute abend lernen, also ich kann nicht ins Kino gehen.
  3. Ich habe nur 30 Minuten für das Examen gelernt.
  1. I study for the test.
  2. I have to study tonight, so I can't go to the movies.
  3. I only studied 30 minutes for the test.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT lernt für TASK/COURSE/QUALIFICATION.

 

  1. STUDENT studies for TASK/COURSE/QUALIFICATION.

Details:

study (for test)

The word "lernen" is used to describe studying for specific examinations in courses, such as quizzes and tests. Here, "lernen" translates to English "study" and not "learn". This is the verb used to describe day to day habits of studying course materials (not "studieren").

Alternate Forms:

er/sie lernt, hat gelernt, lernte
Professor(in) noun professor

Details:

This word for educators is restricted to special types of university teachers who have a certain position (a "Lehrstuhl") within a university department.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Professorin ist sehr nett und freundlich.
  2. Der Linguistikprofessor ist leider krank.
  1. The professor is very nice and friendly.
  2. Unfortunately, the linguistics professor is sick.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Professor an INSTITUTION
  2. Professor COURSE.genitive
  3. Professor für SUBJECT
  4. SUBJECT-professor
  1. Professor at INSTITUTION
  2. Professor of the COURSE
  3. Professor of SUBJECT
  4. SUBJECT-professor

Details:

This word for educators is restricted to special types of university teachers who have a certain position (a "Lehrstuhl") within a university department.

Alternate Forms:

der Professor (m.), die Professorin (f.), die Professoren (pl.), die Professorinnen (f.pl.)
Schüler(in) noun student

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in high-school and lower level types of schools. For students in college-level and beyond, the word Student is used.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Schüler warten an der Bushaltestelle.
  2. Viele Schüler werden nie zur Uni gehen.
  3. Die Schüler an meiner Schule sind sehr freundlich.
  4. Der Lehrer bringt den Schülern gute Manieren bei.
  1. The students wait at the bus stop.
  2. Many students will never go to college.
  3. The students at my school are very friendly.
  4. The teacher teaches the students good manners.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Schüler(in) an INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Schüler(in) in COURSE.dative
  1. Student at INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Student in COURSE.dative

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in high-school and lower level types of schools. For students in college-level and beyond, the word Student is used.

Alternate Forms:

der Schüler (m.), die Schülerin (f.), die Schüler (pl.), die Schülerinnen (f.pl.)
Student(in) noun student

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in college-level education and beyond. For students in high school (Gymnasium) and lower, the word "Schüler" is used.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich bin Student an der Uni-Freiburg.
  2. Studenten verdienen sehr wenig Geld.
  3. In dieser Stadt gibt es viele Studenten.
  4. Die Dozentin bringt den Studentinnen Deutsch bei.
  1. I am a student at the University of Freiburg.
  2. Students earn very little money.
  3. In this city there are a lot of students.
  4. The professor teaches the students German.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Student an INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Student in COURSE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-Student (e.g. Jurastudent)
  1. Student at INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Student in COURSE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-student (e.g. law student)

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in college-level education and beyond. For students in high school (Gymnasium) and lower, the word "Schüler" is used.

Alternate Forms:

der Student (m.), die Studentin (f.), die Studenten (pl.), die Studentinnen (f.pl.)
studieren verb study (as major)

Details:

"Studieren" is used only to describe what one is studying as a major (or minor) at a college-level school. It is also used to describe the general activity of studying at the college level. It cannot be used to describe studying for a test or learning 

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich studiere Linguistik auf Bachelor's an der Uni-Würzburg.
  2. Sie hat schon zwei Jahre Jura studiert, aber möchte ihr Hauptfach wechseln.
  3. Ich finde es besser, an der Uni-Texas zu studieren als an Texas A & M.
  1. I study linguistics towards a B.A. at the University of Würzburg.
  2. She has studied law for two years, but wants to change her major.
  3. I think it's better to study at U-Texas than at Texas A&M.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT studiert MAJOR 
  2. STUDENT studiert an INSTITUTION.dative
  3. STUDENT  studiert auf QUALIFICATION
  4. STUDENT studiert MAJOR auf QUALIFICATION
  5. STUDENT studiert MAJOR an INSTITUTION.dative
  6. STUDENT studiert MAJOR auf QUALIFICATION an INSTITUTION.dative

 

  1. STUDENT studies for MAJOR 
  2. STUDENT studies at an INSTITUTION.dative
  3. STUDENT  studies for QUALIFICATION
  4. STUDENT studies MAJOR for QUALIFICATION
  5. STUDENT studies MAJOR at an INSTITUTION.dative
  6. STUDENT studies MAJOR for QUALIFICATION at an INSTITUTION.dative

Details:

"Studieren" is used only to describe what one is studying as a major (or minor) at a college-level school. It is also used to describe the general activity of studying at the college level. It cannot be used to describe studying for a test or learning 

Alternate Forms:

er studiert, hat studiert, studierte
unterrichten verb teach

Details:

teach, instruct

This word for teaching refers primarily to organized courses, such as those at schools and colleges.

Example Sentences:

  1. Dr. Schmidt unterrichtet Semantik an der Uni-Berlin.
  2. Ein guter Lehrer hat mich Englisch unterrichtet.
  3. Die alte Professorin hat schon 40 Jahre unterrichtet.
  4. Manche Studios unterrichten Yoga als sportliche Disziplin.
  5. Ich unterrichte Tennis für Anfänger.
  1. Dr. Schmidt teaches semantics at the University of Berlin.
  2. A good teacher taught me English.
  3. The old professor has already taught for 40 years.
  4. Some centers teach yoga as an athletic discipline.
  5. I teach tennis for beginners.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. TEACHER unterrichtet.
  2. TEACHER unterrichtet an INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER unterrichtet SUBJECT.
  4. TEACHER unterrichtet COURSE.accusative.
  5. TEACHER unterrichtet STUDENT.accusative.
  6. TEACHER unterrichtet STUDENT.accusative von SUBJECT. 
  1. TEACHER teaches.
  2. TEACHER teaches at INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER teaches SUBJECT.
  4. TEACHER teaches COURSE.accusative.
  5. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative.
  6. TEACHER instructs STUDENT.accusative about SUBJECT.

Details:

teach, instruct

This word for teaching refers primarily to organized courses, such as those at schools and colleges.

Alternate Forms:

er unterrichtet, hat unterrichtet, unterrichtete
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
Dozent(in) noun teacher, professor

Details:

This word for "teacher" refers to educators at the college level, including lecturers. It may sometimes be used to refer to people giving private group lessons. In other cases, the word "Lehrer" is preferred.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Dozentin ist neu an dieser Uni.
  2. Die Dozenten essen hier zu Mittag.
  1. The professor is new at this university.
  2. The professors eat lunch here.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Dozent an INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Dozent für SUBJECT
  1. Instructor at INSTITUTION
  2. instructor of SUBJECT

Details:

This word for "teacher" refers to educators at the college level, including lecturers. It may sometimes be used to refer to people giving private group lessons. In other cases, the word "Lehrer" is preferred.

Alternate Forms:

der Dozent (m.), die Dozentin (f.), die Dozenten (pl.), die Dozentinnen (f.pl.)
Lehrer(in) noun teacher

Details:

This word for "teacher" typically refers to teachers in general or, more specifically to teachers below the college level. For college teachers, the word "Dozent(in)" or "Professor(in)" is preferred.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich finde meine Deutschlehrerin sehr interessant.
  2. Er ist Lehrer an dem Gymnasium.
  1. I think my German teacher is very interesting.
  2. He is a teacher at the Gymnasium (high school).

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SUBJECT-lehrer (e.g. Deutschlehrer, Mathematiklehrerin)
  2. Lehrer an INSTITUTE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-lehrer an INSTITUTE.dative
  1. SUBJECT-teacher (e.g. German teacher, Math teacher)
  2. Teacher at INSTITUTE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-teacher at INSTITUTE.dative

Details:

This word for "teacher" typically refers to teachers in general or, more specifically to teachers below the college level. For college teachers, the word "Dozent(in)" or "Professor(in)" is preferred.

Alternate Forms:

der Lehrer (m.), die Lehrerin (f.), die Lehrer (pl.), die Lehrerinnen (f.pl.)
Professor(in) noun professor

Details:

This word for educators is restricted to special types of university teachers who have a certain position (a "Lehrstuhl") within a university department.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Professorin ist sehr nett und freundlich.
  2. Der Linguistikprofessor ist leider krank.
  1. The professor is very nice and friendly.
  2. Unfortunately, the linguistics professor is sick.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Professor an INSTITUTION
  2. Professor COURSE.genitive
  3. Professor für SUBJECT
  4. SUBJECT-professor
  1. Professor at INSTITUTION
  2. Professor of the COURSE
  3. Professor of SUBJECT
  4. SUBJECT-professor

Details:

This word for educators is restricted to special types of university teachers who have a certain position (a "Lehrstuhl") within a university department.

Alternate Forms:

der Professor (m.), die Professorin (f.), die Professoren (pl.), die Professorinnen (f.pl.)
Schüler(in) noun student

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in high-school and lower level types of schools. For students in college-level and beyond, the word Student is used.

Example Sentences:

  1. Die Schüler warten an der Bushaltestelle.
  2. Viele Schüler werden nie zur Uni gehen.
  3. Die Schüler an meiner Schule sind sehr freundlich.
  4. Der Lehrer bringt den Schülern gute Manieren bei.
  1. The students wait at the bus stop.
  2. Many students will never go to college.
  3. The students at my school are very friendly.
  4. The teacher teaches the students good manners.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Schüler(in) an INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Schüler(in) in COURSE.dative
  1. Student at INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Student in COURSE.dative

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in high-school and lower level types of schools. For students in college-level and beyond, the word Student is used.

Alternate Forms:

der Schüler (m.), die Schülerin (f.), die Schüler (pl.), die Schülerinnen (f.pl.)
Student(in) noun student

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in college-level education and beyond. For students in high school (Gymnasium) and lower, the word "Schüler" is used.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich bin Student an der Uni-Freiburg.
  2. Studenten verdienen sehr wenig Geld.
  3. In dieser Stadt gibt es viele Studenten.
  4. Die Dozentin bringt den Studentinnen Deutsch bei.
  1. I am a student at the University of Freiburg.
  2. Students earn very little money.
  3. In this city there are a lot of students.
  4. The professor teaches the students German.

Grammar:

Gendered Nouns

Many nouns that denote people specify the gender of the person with noun endings. If the partner is female, the noun ends in "-in." In English, the gender of the person is not expressed linguistically. Even in cases where English speakers can make such a distinction (e.g. actor/actress), users of the language are shifting away from doing so.
Male FemaleEnglish

der Freund

die Freundinfriend
der Partnerdie Partnerinpartner
der Lebensgefährtedie Lebensgefährtinsignificant other
der Kundedie Kundincustomer
der Verkäuferdie Verkäuferinsalesperson
der Studentdie Studentincollege student
der Professordie Professorinprofessor
der Schauspielerdie Schauspielerinactor
 

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. Student an INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Student in COURSE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-Student (e.g. Jurastudent)
  1. Student at INSTITUTION.dative
  2. Student in COURSE.dative
  3. SUBJECT-student (e.g. law student)

Details:

This word for "student" refers only to students in college-level education and beyond. For students in high school (Gymnasium) and lower, the word "Schüler" is used.

Alternate Forms:

der Student (m.), die Studentin (f.), die Studenten (pl.), die Studentinnen (f.pl.)
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
das Gymnasium noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students (and a little older). However, not all students this age attend the Gymnasium, but only those who plan to attend college and work as skilled professionals. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Gymnasium (on the left in blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Mark besucht das Gymnasium.
  2. In Deutschland gibt es viele gute Gymnasien.
  3. Wenn man an einer Universität studieren möchte, muss man aufs Gymnasium.
  1. Mark attends Gymnasium.
  2. In Germany there are many good Gymnasien.
  3. If one would like to study at a university, one must go to Gymnasium.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT besucht das Gymnasium.
  2. STUDENT geht aufs Gymnasium.
  1. STUDENT attends Gymnasium.
  2. STUDENT goes to Gymnasium.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students (and a little older). However, not all students this age attend the Gymnasium, but only those who plan to attend college and work as skilled professionals. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Gymnasium (on the left in blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

die Gymnasien (pl.)
die Gesamtschule noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Students pursuing all types of secondary education can be found here, but not all students at the school follow the same path for career preparation (i.e. some plan to attend a university, others do not). This allows a higher degree of flexibility for students, e.g. in a Gesamtschule they can more easily change their career path. Students can also attend schools that are dedicated to only one level of career preparation, Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gymnasium.

This graphic shows where Gesamtschule (left middle in light blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Max geht auf dieGesamtschule.
  2. Die Gesamtschule liegt im Norden der Stadt.
  1. Max goes to the Gesamtschule.
  2. The Gesamtschule is in the north of town.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT geht auf/in die Gesamtschule.
  1. STUDENT goes to Gesamtschule.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Students pursuing all types of secondary education can be found here, but not all students at the school follow the same path for career preparation (i.e. some plan to attend a university, others do not). This allows a higher degree of flexibility for students, e.g. in a Gesamtschule they can more easily change their career path. Students can also attend schools that are dedicated to only one level of career preparation, Hauptschule, Realschule, or Gymnasium.

This graphic shows where Gesamtschule (left middle in light blue) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

die Gesamtschulen (pl.)
die Hauptschule noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Attendance at this school fulfills the minimum educational requirements for students in Germany. However, not all students this age attend "Hauptschule"; but only those who plan to have a practical career in a trade. After completing the requirements for Hauptschule, students may choose to continue their education as an apprentice. Other students attend a Realschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Hauptschule (on the right in green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Mia will auf die Hauptschule gehen, nicht aufs Gymnasium.
  2. Tom ist Lehrer an der Hauptschule.
  1. Mia wants to go to Hauptschule, not to Gymnasium.
  2. Tom is a teacher at the Hauptschule.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT geht auf/in die Hauptschule.
  1. STUDENT goes to Hauptschule.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. Attendance at this school fulfills the minimum educational requirements for students in Germany. However, not all students this age attend "Hauptschule"; but only those who plan to have a practical career in a trade. After completing the requirements for Hauptschule, students may choose to continue their education as an apprentice. Other students attend a Realschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Hauptschule (on the right in green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

Hauptschulen (pl.)
die Realschule noun high school

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. However, not all students this age attend Realschule; but only those who plan to attend a vocational college or otherwise pursue a skilled trade. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Realschule (in the middle, light green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Example Sentences:

  1. Lisa besucht seit einem Jahr die Realschule.
  2. Ich will später nicht an der Uni studieren; Realschule gefällt mir sehr gern.
  1. Lisa has been attending Realschule for a year.
  2. I don't want to study at the university later; I like Realschule a lot.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT geht auf/in die Realschule.
  1. STUDENT goes to Realschule.

Details:

This type of school is for students around the same age as American high school students. However, not all students this age attend Realschule; but only those who plan to attend a vocational college or otherwise pursue a skilled trade. Other students attend a Hauptschule, Gymnasium, or Gesamtschule.

This graphic shows where Realschule (in the middle, light green) fits into the educational system in Germany. After primary/elementary school, students attend schools that will prepare them for their future careers. Hauptschule provides a general education with special focus on practical applications, preparing students for careers in trades. Realschule combines a similar, practice-based approach with an expanded general education, and prepares students for further education in vocational schools or apprenticeships.  Gymnasium is less focused on practice, and provides a general education roughly equivalent to what American students learn in high school and in some general education classes early in college. Gymnasium culminates with the Abitur, a test that is required for continued study at the university level.

The Gesamtschule is an alternative to the more traditional three-pronged approach to education that channels students into Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium. Aspects of the three are combined into a more eclectic system where students are less limited in terms of what classes are available to them. 

Alternate Forms:

die Realschulen (pl.)
die Schule noun school

Details:

German "Schule" refers to any school below the college level. This includes the German equivalents of American high school (Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Realschule, Gesamtschule) and elementary school (Schule, Grundschule). However, it does not apply to universities. One cannot say that their university is "eine gute Schule".

Example Sentences:

  1. Er geht heute in die Schule.
  2. Die Frau arbeitet in der Schule.
  1. He goes to school today.
  2. The woman works at the school.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Details:

German "Schule" refers to any school below the college level. This includes the German equivalents of American high school (Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Realschule, Gesamtschule) and elementary school (Schule, Grundschule). However, it does not apply to universities. One cannot say that their university is "eine gute Schule".

Alternate Forms:

die Schulen (pl.)
die Uni noun university

Details:

university

"Die Uni" is an abbreviation for "die Universität". Similar to English "university", it refers only to higher-eduction institutions with an academic focus. It is different from vocational and technical colleges.

Example Sentences:

  1. Karin geht heute in die Uni.
  2. Die Freunde haben zusammen die Uni besucht.
  1. Karin goes to university today.
  2. The friends attended the university together.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Details:

university

"Die Uni" is an abbreviation for "die Universität". Similar to English "university", it refers only to higher-eduction institutions with an academic focus. It is different from vocational and technical colleges.

Alternate Forms:

die Unis (pl.)
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
der Kurs noun course, class

Details:

course

"Der Kurs" is used to describe a semester-long course, mainly in the college setting. It is typically not used for individual class sessions (for which "der Unterricht" is used).

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich belege den Kurs nächstes Semester.
  2. Man muss in diesem Kurs viel lesen.
  3. Die Kurse von Dr. Schmidt sind immer interessant.
  1. I'm taking the course next semester.
  2. You have to read a lot in this class.
  3. Dr. Schmidt's courses are always interesting.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SUBJECT-kurs.
  2. Kurs über SUBJECT
  3. Kurs TEACHER.genitive
  1. SUBJECT-course
  2. course about SUBJECT
  3. course of TEACHER

Details:

course

"Der Kurs" is used to describe a semester-long course, mainly in the college setting. It is typically not used for individual class sessions (for which "der Unterricht" is used).

Alternate Forms:

die Kurse (pl.)
der Unterricht noun course, class, class period

Details:

class, class period, course

This word for "class/course" deals with what goes on in a class setting. It most often refers to a single class session of an academic course. Less frequently, it used to refer to the entire (semester-long) course itself.

Example Sentences:

  1. Der Unterricht von heute war seht interessant.
  2. Wir müssen im Deutschunterricht auf Deutsch sprechen.
  3. Nach dem Unterricht gehen wir in die Bar.
  1. Class today was very interesting.
  2. We have to speak German in German class.
  3. After class we go to the bar.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. SUBJECT-unterricht
  1. SUBJECT-class

Details:

class, class period, course

This word for "class/course" deals with what goes on in a class setting. It most often refers to a single class session of an academic course. Less frequently, it used to refer to the entire (semester-long) course itself.

Alternate Forms:

die Unterrichte (pl.)
die Klasse noun class

Details:

(people in) class, grade level

This word for "class" deals primarily with the people involved in the course. It most often refers to the people that one takes a course or series of courses with. In pre-university levels, students often share the same classroom all day, and these people are one's "Klasse." It may also refer to one's grade level (i.e. 8th grade = die achte Klasse) or one's graduating class (my Klasse had 300 students.) Less often, it refers to the actual, semester-long course one is in.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mit 40 Studenten ist diese Klasse zu gross.
  2. Es gibt nur 4 Jungen in der Klasse.
  3. Ich bin mit ein paar Leuten aus meiner Klasse befreundet.
  1. With 40 students, the class is too big.
  2. There are only four boys in the class.
  3. I am friends with a few people from my class/grade.

Grammar:

Der, die, das

Remember that all nouns have a specific gender; they are either masculine, feminine or neuter. It is very important to know the gender of every single noun to master the rather complex case system in German.
In German, as in English, you can either have a direct (der, die das - the) or indirect (ein, eine, ein -a) article preceding a noun. The tables below will help you review how articles change based on gender and cases.

 

 MasculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativederdiedasdie
Accusativedendiedasdie
Dativedemderdemden
Genitivedesderdesder

 

 MaculineFeminineNeuterPlural (all genders)
Nominativeeineineein  --
Accusativeeineneineeine  --
Dativeeinemeinereinem  --
Genitiveeineseinereines  --

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT ist in der Klasse.
  2. STUDENT.genitive Klasse
  1. STUDENT is in the class.
  2. STUDENT's class

Details:

(people in) class, grade level

This word for "class" deals primarily with the people involved in the course. It most often refers to the people that one takes a course or series of courses with. In pre-university levels, students often share the same classroom all day, and these people are one's "Klasse." It may also refer to one's grade level (i.e. 8th grade = die achte Klasse) or one's graduating class (my Klasse had 300 students.) Less often, it refers to the actual, semester-long course one is in.

Alternate Forms:

die Klassen (pl.)
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
beibringen verb teach

Details:

teach

This word for teaching is mainly restricted to the teaching of specific SKILLS, and not of specific FACTs or general SUBJECTs.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Vater hat mir beigebracht, wie man die Schuhe bindet.
  2. Die Lehrerin bringt uns das Singen bei.
  1. My dad taught me how to tie my shoes.
  2. The teacher teaches us singing.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. TEACHER bringt SKILL bei.
  2. TEACHER bringt STUDENT.dativ SKILL bei.
  1. TEACHER teaches SKILL.
  2. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.dative SKILL.

Details:

teach

This word for teaching is mainly restricted to the teaching of specific SKILLS, and not of specific FACTs or general SUBJECTs.

Alternate Forms:

er bringt bei, hat beigebracht, brachte bei
lehren verb teach

Details:

teach, instruct

This is a general word for teaching, generally focusing on the content of the teaching, such as a SKILL, FACT, or SUBJECT. Generally, it may be related to informal/individual courses, but not to organized COURSES, like those at a college. For formal teaching, "unterrichten"is preferred.

Example Sentences:

  1. Mein Grossvater lehrte mich, dass Krieg schlecht ist.
  2. In seiner Freizeit lehrt der Klavierspieler Musiktheorie.
  3. In der Schule lehrt man uns die Nationalhymne.
  1. My grandpa taught me that war is bad.
  2. In his free time, the pianist teaches music theory.
  3. In school they teach us the national anthem.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative.
  2. TEACHER lehrt an INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER lehrt FACT.
  4. TEACHER lehrt SUBJECT.
  5. TEACHER lehrt SKILL.
  6. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative FACT.
  7. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative SUBJECT.
  8. TEACHER lehrt STUDENT.accusative SKILL.
  1. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative.
  2. TEACHER teaches at an INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER teaches FACT.
  4. TEACHER teaches SUBJECT.
  5. TEACHER teaches SKILL
  6. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative FACT.
  7. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative SUBJECT.
  8. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative SKILL.

Details:

teach, instruct

This is a general word for teaching, generally focusing on the content of the teaching, such as a SKILL, FACT, or SUBJECT. Generally, it may be related to informal/individual courses, but not to organized COURSES, like those at a college. For formal teaching, "unterrichten"is preferred.

Alternate Forms:

er lehrt, hat gelehrt, lehrte
unterrichten verb teach

Details:

teach, instruct

This word for teaching refers primarily to organized courses, such as those at schools and colleges.

Example Sentences:

  1. Dr. Schmidt unterrichtet Semantik an der Uni-Berlin.
  2. Ein guter Lehrer hat mich Englisch unterrichtet.
  3. Die alte Professorin hat schon 40 Jahre unterrichtet.
  4. Manche Studios unterrichten Yoga als sportliche Disziplin.
  5. Ich unterrichte Tennis für Anfänger.
  1. Dr. Schmidt teaches semantics at the University of Berlin.
  2. A good teacher taught me English.
  3. The old professor has already taught for 40 years.
  4. Some centers teach yoga as an athletic discipline.
  5. I teach tennis for beginners.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. TEACHER unterrichtet.
  2. TEACHER unterrichtet an INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER unterrichtet SUBJECT.
  4. TEACHER unterrichtet COURSE.accusative.
  5. TEACHER unterrichtet STUDENT.accusative.
  6. TEACHER unterrichtet STUDENT.accusative von SUBJECT. 
  1. TEACHER teaches.
  2. TEACHER teaches at INSTITUTION.dative.
  3. TEACHER teaches SUBJECT.
  4. TEACHER teaches COURSE.accusative.
  5. TEACHER teaches STUDENT.accusative.
  6. TEACHER instructs STUDENT.accusative about SUBJECT.

Details:

teach, instruct

This word for teaching refers primarily to organized courses, such as those at schools and colleges.

Alternate Forms:

er unterrichtet, hat unterrichtet, unterrichtete
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
lernen verb learn

Details:

learn, study (for a test)

This word corresponds nicely with English "learn". However, note that German lernen is also used to describe studying for a test (see lernen (study)).

Example Sentences:

  1. Wir lernen heute über die deutsche Politik.
  2. Ich habe gelernt, dass Deutschland mehr als 80 Millionen Leute hat.
  3. Wir müssen lernen, wie man das "r" ausspricht.
  1. Today we're learning about German politics.
  2. I learned that Germany has more than 80 million people.
  3. We have to learn how to pronounce the "r".

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT lernt über SUBJECT.
  2. STUDENT lernt FACT/SKILL.
  1. STUDENT learns about SUBJECT.
  2. STUDENT learns FACT/SKILL.

Details:

learn, study (for a test)

This word corresponds nicely with English "learn". However, note that German lernen is also used to describe studying for a test (see lernen (study)).

Alternate Forms:

er lernt, hat gelernt, lernte
lernen (für Test) verb study (for exam)

Details:

study (for test)

The word "lernen" is used to describe studying for specific examinations in courses, such as quizzes and tests. Here, "lernen" translates to English "study" and not "learn". This is the verb used to describe day to day habits of studying course materials (not "studieren").

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich lerne für die Prüfung.
  2. Ich muss heute abend lernen, also ich kann nicht ins Kino gehen.
  3. Ich habe nur 30 Minuten für das Examen gelernt.
  1. I study for the test.
  2. I have to study tonight, so I can't go to the movies.
  3. I only studied 30 minutes for the test.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT lernt für TASK/COURSE/QUALIFICATION.

 

  1. STUDENT studies for TASK/COURSE/QUALIFICATION.

Details:

study (for test)

The word "lernen" is used to describe studying for specific examinations in courses, such as quizzes and tests. Here, "lernen" translates to English "study" and not "learn". This is the verb used to describe day to day habits of studying course materials (not "studieren").

Alternate Forms:

er/sie lernt, hat gelernt, lernte
studieren verb study (as major)

Details:

"Studieren" is used only to describe what one is studying as a major (or minor) at a college-level school. It is also used to describe the general activity of studying at the college level. It cannot be used to describe studying for a test or learning 

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich studiere Linguistik auf Bachelor's an der Uni-Würzburg.
  2. Sie hat schon zwei Jahre Jura studiert, aber möchte ihr Hauptfach wechseln.
  3. Ich finde es besser, an der Uni-Texas zu studieren als an Texas A & M.
  1. I study linguistics towards a B.A. at the University of Würzburg.
  2. She has studied law for two years, but wants to change her major.
  3. I think it's better to study at U-Texas than at Texas A&M.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT studiert MAJOR 
  2. STUDENT studiert an INSTITUTION.dative
  3. STUDENT  studiert auf QUALIFICATION
  4. STUDENT studiert MAJOR auf QUALIFICATION
  5. STUDENT studiert MAJOR an INSTITUTION.dative
  6. STUDENT studiert MAJOR auf QUALIFICATION an INSTITUTION.dative

 

  1. STUDENT studies for MAJOR 
  2. STUDENT studies at an INSTITUTION.dative
  3. STUDENT  studies for QUALIFICATION
  4. STUDENT studies MAJOR for QUALIFICATION
  5. STUDENT studies MAJOR at an INSTITUTION.dative
  6. STUDENT studies MAJOR for QUALIFICATION at an INSTITUTION.dative

Details:

"Studieren" is used only to describe what one is studying as a major (or minor) at a college-level school. It is also used to describe the general activity of studying at the college level. It cannot be used to describe studying for a test or learning 

Alternate Forms:

er studiert, hat studiert, studierte
Details
Examples
Grammar Notes
Sentence Templates
Alternate Forms
See All Information
belegen verb take (a course)

Details:

to take (for courses)

Germans generally do not use the word "take" ("nehmen") when they talk about attending a course for credit, they use the verb "belegen."

Example Sentences:

  1. Hast du schon einen Deutschkurs belegt?
  2. Ich belege dieses Semester vier Kurse!
  1. Have you ever taken a German course?
  2. I'm taking four courses this semester!

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT belegt COURSE.
  1. STUDENT takes COURSE.

Details:

to take (for courses)

Germans generally do not use the word "take" ("nehmen") when they talk about attending a course for credit, they use the verb "belegen."

Alternate Forms:

belegt, hat belegt, belegte
bestehen verb pass

Details:

The verb "bestehen" is used to descibe passing a course or passing a test/exam.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich kann es nicht glauben, dass ich die Prüfung bestanden habe.
  2. Sie besteht immer alle ihre Kurse.
  1. I can't believe that I passed the exam.
  2. She always passes all her courses.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT besteht COURSE.
  2. STUDENT besteht TASK.
  1. STUDENT passes COURSE.
  2. STUDENT passes TASK.

Details:

The verb "bestehen" is used to descibe passing a course or passing a test/exam.

Alternate Forms:

er/sie besteht, hat bestanden, bestand
durchfallen verb fail

Details:

Durchfallen is used like the English fail.

Example Sentences:

  1. Sie fällt durch Mathe durch.
  1. She is failing math.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT fällt durch COURSE.
  1. STUDENT fails COURSE.

Details:

Durchfallen is used like the English fail.

Alternate Forms:

er fällt durch, ist durchgefallen, fiel durch
durchkommen verb pass

Details:

Durchkommen is used like the English equivalent to pass.

Example Sentences:

  1. Ich muss bei Mathe wirklich durchkommen.
  2. Der Lehrer glaubt nicht, dass alle Studenten durchkommen.
  1. I really have to pass math.
  2. The teacher doesn't think all students will pass.

Grammar:

Cases, Cases, Cases

For transitive and ditransitive verbs, it can be difficult to remember how to express who is doing what to whom. This is due to a major difference between German and English: German uses its case system to keep track of who is doing what, while English uses syntax. Here is what you need to know about the nominative, accusative and dative cases to use these verbs properly.

Case and Grammatical RoleWhat it expressesGerman ExampleEnglish Translation
Nominative   
subjectWho is doing the action.Der Lehrer spricht.The teacher talks.
Accusative   
direct objectWhom or what is being acted upon.Der Lehrer erzählt eine Geschichte.The teacher tells a story.
Dative   
indirect objectTo whom or for whom something is being done.Der Lehrer liest seinen Schülern ein Gedicht.The teacher reads his students a story.

It's important to note that there are other situations that call for particular cases also. 

  • Accusative after these prepositions: durch, für, gegen, ohne, um, bis and entlang.
  • Accusative is used for most time expressions: jeden Tag, letzten Winterer, diesen Sommer, etc.
  • Dative after these prepositions: aus, außer, bei, mit, nach, seit, von, zu.
  • Dative verbs have a dative object (subject is still in nominative): helfen, danken, gefallen, gehören, schmecken, passen.
  • Two-way prepositions, "Wechselpräpositionen," appear with either accusative or dative, depending on the meaning. See Grimm Grammar for details.

Templates with Frame Elements:

  1. STUDENT kommt durch COURSE.
  1. STUDENT (barely) passes COURSE.

Details:

Durchkommen is used like the English equivalent to pass.

Alternate Forms:

er kommt durch, ist durchgekommen, kam durch